Rus Articles Journal

Who thought up horsepower ?

on January 19, 1736 in Greenock, near Glasgow (Scotland), James Uatt (James Watt) was born.

Most of people consider him as the inventor of a steam-engine, but it not absolutely so.

The steam-engines constructed by D. Papen, T. Severi, I. Polzunov, T. Nyyukomen began to work at mines long before D. Uatt. They differed structurally, but the main thing in them was that the movement of the piston was caused by alternate heating and cooling of the working cylinder. From - for it they were slow and consumed a lot of fuel.

Having made whole a number of in-depth studies and experiences, Uatt in 1769 offered (and patented) to make cooling of steam in the separate tank - the condenser, reported with the working cylinder. It reduced fuel consumption four times at once and accelerated operation of the machine in tens of times.

In 1784 Uatt patented a steam-engine of double action. In it steam through a zolotnik affected alternately one, other party of the piston. It still doubled car power, and, above all - allowed to transform progress of the piston to a rotary motion of a swing wheel. From it rotation became possible to be transferred by means of belts on various machines and mechanisms that significantly expanded a scope of steam-engines.

The mechanical centrifugal regulator which provided stability of its rotation and allowed to regulate speed was one of important mechanisms in a steam-engine of double action.

By the end 80 - x years of the 18th century the steam-engine design as universal engine for the industry and transport, it was finally finished and in the next 100 years was the main driving force of development of capitalist production.

Uatt designed also a number of the devices connected with a steam-engine: the mercury open manometer, the mercury vacuum gage in the condenser, a gage glass in coppers, pressure indicator. Invented copy ink (1780), established composition of water (1781). Uatt possesses also such important inventions as the first-ever steam hammer and steam heating. He designed and several calculating machines, copy press. Was a member of the London royal society (1785), Parisian academy of Sciences (1814).

It is interesting that in due time as a power unit of Uatt offered such unit as horsepower . This unit of measure lived and up to now. But in England where Uatt is esteemed as the pioneer of industrial revolution, solved differently. In 1882. The British association of engineers decided to appropriate his name to a power unit. Now the name of James Uatt can be read on any electric bulb. It was the case of assignment of own name, the first in the history of equipment, to a unit of measure. The tradition of assignment of own names to units of measure also began with this case.

Uatt lived long life and died on August 19, 1819 in Hitfilda near Birmingham. On a monument to James Uatt it is written: Increased the power of the person over the nature . So contemporaries estimated activity of the famous English inventor.]