What intelligence agencies and law-enforcement structures existed in imperial Russia?
always attached to Providing internal security of the state in Russia great value, creating for this purpose special divisions and services. By the beginning of the XX century in the country there was a system of intelligence agencies and law-enforcement establishments which was made: police divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, penitentiary divisions of the Ministry of Justice, convoy guards and Courier case of the Ministry of Defence, Case of boundary guards of the Ministry of Finance.
The regular police appeared in Russia during Peter I`s reforms. Tasks of police were defined in Regulations to the Main magistrate in 1721 in which it was said that “ the police is soul of nationality and all kind orders and fundamental a subtime of human safety and an udobnost “. In 1802. the Ministry of Internal Affairs into which submission gradually turned all police structures was founded. At the beginning of the XX century the police was subdivided on city, district, quickly - search and gendarme.
In the capitals and the large cities sites which were divided into neighbourhoods were the main police links. The direct police service in neighbourhoods was born by policemen. In counties camps in which stanovy police officers served were the main police links. In rural areas police functions were carried out by rural policemen. For strengthening of district police in May, 1903 the district police guards intending " were formed; for protection of wellbeing, the general tranquility, safety and an order “ and having military structure. Its basis made Konno - police parts.
Quickly - search functions in police were assigned to security offices (on political crimes) and detective offices (for all-criminal character).
The gendarmerie was the most powerful in system of police establishments. The separate case of gendarmes was founded (OKZh) in 1827. He had purely military organization and in the administrative, front and economic relation originally submitted to the Ministry of Defence. In 1880. The separate case of gendarmes was a part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, but remained to consist on the budget of the Ministry of Defence.
The gendarmerie had the versions: the gendarmerie of capital and provincial managements, railway gendarmerie (each railroad had the gendarme management), boundary (served on protection of borders and exercised control of entry into the empire and departure out of its limits), the field gendarmerie which was carrying out functions of military police, similar functions in fortresses carried out serf gendarmerie. In OKZh there were a supervisory police and own agency which were actively used for counterintelligence activities. The number of gendarmerie was small - at the beginning of the 20th century it made a little more than 6 thousand people.
Jails and prisons, unfortunately, were an integral part of Russia throughout the entire periods of its history. Already in the Code about punishments of 1649 there were more than 40 articles providing imprisonment. But the uniform penal system in the country long did not exist. At the beginning of the 19th century in Department of executive police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs Management of jails which in 1879 is transformed to Head prison department (GTU) was formed. Entered the twentieth century of GTU with 895 prisons and a big staff of prison administration, officials and policemen.
In 1811 in Russia the internal guards as a special type of military forces for execution of guard and convoy duty, and also for performance of a number of police functions are entered by . The internal guards were police body, but had the military organization and submitted to the Ministry of Defence. In the second half of the 19th century the internal guards will be reorganized into local troops as a part of which the convoy guards are allocated. Local troops submitted to commanders of military districts. In each province the crew of local guards which organizationally included teams of convoy guards was located.
The convoy guards intending for escort of prisoners, suppression of disorders in jails and external protection of prisons submitted not only to the military management, but also the chief of the Head prison department. In 1886 530 teams of convoy guards as a part of which there were 100 officers and about 12 thousand lower ranks were created.
The Courier case formed in 1797 was the smallest in among intelligence agencies . In January, 1859 only 92 couriers distributed on two companies served in the Case. At the beginning of the XX century its structure reached 120 people. Ranks of the case not only delivered in all ends of the empire and abroad confidential correspondence, documents, money and values, but also provided a convoy of the state criminals. So, all Decembrists were sent to Siberia accompanied by couriers.
In Russia always much attention was paid to protection of borders, but the Separate case of boundary guards (OKPS) received organizational registration only in October, 1893 when it was allocated from structure of Department of customs duties in independent structure as a part of the Ministry of Finance. By 1900 7 boundary districts deployed on border of Russia and the Special Zaamursky district protecting the region of KVZhD in China, 35 crews, two independent departments and a flotilla were a part of the case. The Zaamursky district in which about 500 officers and 25 thousand lower ranks served was the largest division of OKPS.
On January 1, 2008 91 years from the date of assignment of OKPS of the name the Separate boundary case are executed. From this day ranks of boundary guards began to be called frontier guards officially.
During the entire period of existence in Russia of intelligence agencies and law-enforcement establishments in them repeatedly changed organizationally - regular construction, they were a part of various ministries, but invariable was a main task of their activity - providing internal security of the state.]