Stroganova - benefactors or feudal lords - oppressors?
Salt - Vychegodskaya was a patrimonial nest of the powerful sort which gave not one generation of landowners throughout several centuries - landlords, bankers, statesmen of imperial Russia. Nevertheless Salt - Vychegodskaya was never possession or Stroganov` ancestral lands in which they would be absolute masters. Though tsars also specified to solvychegodsky voivodes at the solution of important questions by all means in everything to consult on Stroganov.
Salt-mines in the Russian North arose in an extreme antiquity. By the 16th century monastic salt production accepts the huge sizes in the north of Russia. Also the part of chernososhny peasants was engaged in salt-making trade. However only the little from them, it as Kobelev, Stroganovy, it was possible to create strong economy and to compete with monasteries.
One of the first settlers - saltworkers at the Salty lake - Anika Stroganov - received in 1517 from the grand duke Vasily the appointed diploma to own Vychegodsky Usolye and to cook salt on the grand duke (not all salt sources, but a certain site). Began to be engaged in salt-making trade and other chernososhny peasants, arose tens of saltworks which owners received appointed diplomas on the land plots.
The thought of creation of the monumental temple representing financial power and the political importance of a family of Stroganov belonged to Anika. In 1558 he received blessing from the archbishop Rostovsky on a construction “ the temple about side-altars “. In 1560 construction which continued nearly 24 years began.
Annunciation Cathedral struck contemporaries with the power and monumentalism and entered classical heritage of Old Russian architecture, just as honor the Vvedensky Cathedral built by Stroganov in a centuries. It not just two monuments, they represent two largest stages in development of stone architecture of the Moscow Russia XVI - the end of the 17th century
not only large construction undertakings, but also the direction in the Russian iconography of the XVI-XVII centuries, so-called " are connected With Stroganov; stroganovsky letters “. In the stylistic relation they form one of the most integral directions in the history of the Russian iconography. They are, as a rule, not great by the size and as if are intended for close consideration. The small sizes of an icon, virtuosity of picturesque execution, precious salaries gave it similarity to jewel of the thinnest work.
In 1722 Peter I granted three brothers Stroganov a baronial title. In more than hundred years, in 1826, Stroganova were built in count advantage. Legends about “ high-native “ an origin of Stroganov appeared in the 17th century. Broad circulation was received by the version that the Tatar murza or princes who passed to the Russian service and adopted Christianity, and which subsequently became rich Novgorodians were their ancestors. Legends of the aristocratic origin of Stroganova tried to hide an origin from peasants.
It is long and Stroganov` way from chopped timbered northern log huts to the capital palaces built by the best architects of the time was thorny. Growth of wealth and Stroganov` influence seems almost fantastic. In a subsoil of feudal economy of the North, especially among the chernososhny peasantry, the new social relations began to arise. But not only extraction of salt enriched Stroganov. Stroganova buy up the earth. But the main way of land acquisitions - the vessel - monetary operations on the security of the earth. Stroganova collected the lands step by step - at incapable to give the taken loan.
In 1558 Ivan IV welcomed Grigory Anikeevich Stroganov empty lands on the Kama River for 20 preferential years. For it Grigory was obliged to put here on the means the town armed gun “ " dress; and protected by military people. In 1574 according to the imperial diploma Yakov and Grigory Stroganovym were granted by lands beyond Ural Ridge. And again an indispensable condition - to build fortresses and to employ military people at own expense. So development of the Siberian lands began.
But despite all merits of Stroganov, it is worth recognizing that they were typical feudal lords - landlords, corresponding to the time. Throughout several centuries of Stroganova - landlords, merchants and industrialists personified is feudal - serf Russia.
On book " materials; Solvychegodsk “ O. V. Ovsyannikova, 1973 ]