Whom Pushkin called the friend “ Mars, Bacchus and Venus “?
on December 29, 1787, 220 years ago, in a family of the valid councilor of state Sergey Lunin the son whom named by Mikhail was born . His mother, Feodosiy Nikitichn Muravyev`s , died when the boy was only five years old, in his memory she forever remained as the kind woman who was feeling sorry for nothing for the children (except Mischa in a family there were two more children: Nikita and Katya ).
Having remained one, Sergey Mikhaylovich began to miss in the Tambov solitude, and 929 country souls which belonged to the retired foreman did not warm his only soul. At last, he spat everything, left the managing director and jerked to the capital where lodged. To dull children`s pain from death of mother, the retired foreman employed to children of the best house teachers. Together with all in the house there was also an abbot Vovilye, as the teacher of French in the beginning. Gradually using that Lunin - the senior in questions of education in everything relied on teachers and blindly trusted them, the abbot of both sons of the foreman turned in rimsko - Catholic belief.
Its influence on boys was so strong that Nikita even thought of going to the monastery. But the destiny disposed a little differently: both brothers, hardly “ having feathered “ began service in a kavalergardsky regiment as a part of which took the most active part in fight near Austerlits which ended with full defeat of allied troops. In this bloody fight Mikhail was lucky more: he survived, and the brother was fatally wounded and, dying, asked - to allow to pass away only about one to it in one of monasteries. The last will was right there executed: Nikita Lunin was brought to the monastery where he also departed to the world other.
The death of the beloved brother very strongly worked on Mikhail. It did not hit in hard drinking as on its place his friends - hussars would make, he did not begin to look for death in fight, he just began to treat death a little differently, figuratively speaking began to live to the full extent, trying not to miss a uniform moment for completeness of life. It was closed up by the scrapper, the desperate lady`s man who could not but pass by any pretty woman. Often it enraged those men who considered these beauties by the property. They threw gloves. And the gallant hussar accepted a call, but on duels showed such nobility what does not need to learn also another. It always shot in the air how there were circumstances. And here his opponents showed much less compassion - several times after their shots Lunin was on the verge of death. But always revived as the Phoenix from ashes … here what else extravagance it differed in
A: having arrived after the termination of campaigns to St. Petersburg , he lodged on Black small river . It always had many guests, but only the most desperate remained to spend the night, however. And everything from - for the fact that the captain Lunin held at himself 9 dogs and two, not manual … bears!
In general he was a desperate idler. Could change on a bet for one night all signs on Nevsky Avenue, few times rushed in the buff on a horse on the most brisk streets of the capital, say, could not live day without pranks and disorderly conduct. For as it was loved by companions. With it, at least, it was not boring … for
However, especially the destiny did not allow to clear up to it, from one before the second war there was term very short, a little more than four years. A campaign of Napoleon to Russia, fights with aggressors allowed the brilliant officer to win even more fame. Mikhail Lunin caused a stir in many fights, very bravely proved to be at Borodino Field, and graduated from the company 1812 - 1814 the gentleman of three awards and a gold sword with the inscription “ For bravery “ for Borodino. And in a year the administration considered that it is better to get rid of unpredictable Lunin - he was transferred to the reserve.
Very few people know that in the known folklore about lieutenant Rzhevsky which - what stories were “ are written off “ from Lunin. Of course, after war he became staid, tried to brawl a little less, he was carried away by policy. Mikhail suddenly realized that Russia after 1812 should not live as it was before Napoleonic invasion that the country which won Napoleon it is impossible “ to return “ in a serfdom framework that changes were about to happen. But the country the tsar still ruled. And Lunin one of the first put forward idea of regicide which developed in the first “ decembrist “ society - “ Union of rescue “ arisen in 1816.
However, this society was very small: young cousins of Lunin - Sergey and Matvei Muravyevy - Apostles, their friends Ivan Yakushkin and Sergey Trubetskoy , some more people - that`s all. Larger was “ Union of prosperity “ created in 1818. And here Lunin played a role “ first violin “ - it went two years later with Muravyev to coordination of the joint action plan with “ southerners “ whom Pestel headed.
But I ran slightly forward in the narration. Before there were events, in some measure affected Lunin`s destiny too. The matter is that his father, Sergey Mikhaylovich, was very afflicted with reckless behavior of the son and in soul hoped that after war he will become staid. When Mikhail began “ to act “ against the tsar and even introduced the idea that supposedly it is necessary to get rid of him, the father supported the sovereign, and warned the son that now he from the father and will not get paid peanuts. All this forced Mikhail to go to Paris where he spent time at balls and in literary circles. He even wrote the novel “ False Dmitriy “ which, however, did not remain. Liked to play a piano and body.
The father could not treat that the eldest son instead of rejoicing a surname, encroached on the most sacred - the monarchy quietly. From chagrin he got sick, and soon died. Now at the son, as they say, were are given a free hand …
About one of meetings of secret society can be read at Pushkina in a novel " chapter 10; Eugene Onegin “:
Sharp are well-known for oratory,
of Sbiralis members of this family
At uneasy Nikita,
At careful Ilya.
the Friend of Mars, Bacchus and Venus,
to Them sharply Lunin proposed
the drastic measures
I with inspiration muttered.
A after a while Lunin comes back to army. On the one hand he sees that friends from secret society too “ are indulgent “ to the tsar, with another - decides to kill two hares at once: in - the first to get closer to the tsar on closer distance (Lunin tries to obtain that he is appointed the aide-de-camp to grand duke Konstantin Pavlovich ), and, in - the second, to look for people, more resolute in army. However, having got to Warsaw , namely there was Konstantin Pavlovich`s rate, Lunin, living in relative wellbeing, breaks off all the relations with Decembrists. And to performance at Senate Square treats without special sincere awe.
However not all Decembrists on interrogations differed in high nobility. Some of them “ broke up “ at once, having called among the main conspirators of Mikhail Lunin. And even the fact that it was not in the capital several years and did not support communications neither with Northern, nor with Youzhny societies, did not rescue the lieutenant colonel from arrest. However, there was it on April 9, 1826, nearly five months later after performance at Senate Square … Lunin was banished by
to Siberia, and then wrote prophetical words to the cousin Nikita Muravyev: “ … Everything that was to Siberia, - children`s game and spillikins; our true appointment - Siberia; here we have to show what we cost “. But by and large to make a lot of things and it was not possible. Though he created a number of works of illegal literature: “ Letters from Siberia “ “ Search historical “ “ The View of secret society in Russia (1816 - 1826) “ “ Analysis of the report submitted to the Russian emperor by the Secret commission in 1826 “ ( together with N. M. Muravyev ), “ View of the Polish affairs “ “ Social movement in Russia “. But these bright articles could not influence the general process any more. The movement of free thought gradually died away … Mikhail Lunin of the " achieved
of What; literature “? Only the fact that on it wrote a denunciation and again put in a jail (before it was sent to the settlement to the village Urik, near Irkutsk in 1836). There was it in 1841. And four years later Lunin died, without having lived two weeks up to the 58 - the anniversaries. The reasons of his death are not established. One said that he was killed by order from above, others pointed that he was poisoned with carbon monoxide, and the official version was such: stroke consequences …
But in the history it forever remained other of Mars (as the brilliant military), Bacchus`s (it is better arrange it to bacchanalia nobody could), and of Venus (it women to whom he reciprocated very much loved)...]