What is Solvychegodsk well-known for?
Solvychegodsk, or as spoke in the ancient time, Salt - Vychegodskaya - one of the ancient cities of the Russian North. It became history, closely connected with a surname of the largest northern feudal lords, industrialists and merchants Stroganov.
Though Solvychegodsk is also “ homeland “ Kozma Prutkov created by A. K. Tolstoy and brothers Zhemchuzhnikov. Let Kozma Prutkov was also a literary mask, inhabitants of the North remember and honor the “ famous fellow countryman “. Annually in Solvychegodsk in honor of it the humour festival dated for the Prokopyevsk fair (on July 22) is held.
Emergence in the 15th century of the first settlers on the bank of the Salt lake at Usolki`s river was connected with salt trade. The posad began to be called Usolye (or Usolsk). It grew and developed together with trade, becoming at the same time the large shopping and craft center of Northern Russia.
Through Salt - Vychegodskaya in Siberian “ neznayemy zemlitsa “ many zemleprokhodets left. With increase in the population of the Siberian cities demand for iron and products from it considerably increased. Those years forge anvils in Holmogorakh, Velikiy Ustyug and Salt - Vychegodskoy tirelessly ringed. To the Urals left not only wagon trains with sickles, axes, the weapon for crafts, household things, ware, clothes and fabrics, went also solvychegodsky handicraftsmen, including saltworkers there.
One of the reasons of rough blossoming of the Solvychegodsky posad in the XVI-XVII centuries - trade in the fur goods arriving from Siberia. Here by October field men from Siberia came back. The fur bargaining rustled all day long. The fair falls into decay during this period when the Russian cities in Siberia grew and got stronger enough, and trade ways through the Urals moved to more southern areas.
The first years of the 17th century became the Russian history under the name “ time of troubles “. Salt - Vychegodskaya equipped two military groups (one collected “ whole world “ the second - Stroganova) for protection of Moscow. Broken in the fall of 1612 in the center of Russia, groups of interventionists directed on the North, to rich Dwin and vychegodsky posads. Despite desperate courage Usoltcev, the city was subjected to plunder and riots. Since 1613 Solvychegodsk was not attacked any more, and fortifications, gradually collapsing, disappeared from the face of the earth.
Special groups of solvychegodsky handicraftsmen were made by smiths and jewelers - “ smiths on gold and " silver;. Iron-wares supplied navigation, sea and salt-mines, agriculture. Among art crafts of the North a specific place is held by finiftyany business. Enamel is a picturesque enamel, but solvychegodsky finiftyany products were decorated also with stamping, to a skanye, an engraving.
Outstanding monuments of northern architecture - the Blagoveshchensk and Vvedensky cathedrals - remained up to now, though not in original state. A long time the Annunciation Cathedral constructed in the 16th century was the only stone construction on the posad. Almost in a centuries walls of stone Vvedensky Cathedral " were put up; Grigory Dmitriyevich Stroganov`s dependence “.
Since the beginning of the 18th century destinies of Russia were decided on coast of the Gulf of Finland. From - for movements of trade ways and closing of salt saltworks Solvychegodsk turned into the usual provincial town. Since 1796 it is the district city of the Vologda province. Since 1937 - as a part of the Arkhangelsk region.
At the end of the 19th century the far northern remote place served as the place for the reference of the revolutionary intellectuals and workers. The political exile began since 1867 when to the city several groups of narodovolets were banished. From 1909 to 1911 solvychegodsky exile was twice visited by Stalin. Now visit of the museum of I. V. Stalin is included practically into any excursion program for Solvychegodsku.
Years of the Soviet power brought industrialization to the city. It was created it is repair - mechanical plant, health resorts. Since 1923 to this day Solvychegodsk - the balneological and mud resort. It is the city of regional submission in the Kotlas area.
On book " materials; Solvychegodsk “ O. V. Ovsyannikova, 1973 ]