Rus Articles Journal

What portraits of the physicist our many people carried with themselves in 90 - e years?

are on January 17, 2008 302 years since the birth of the American physicist, the political and public figure Benjamin Franklin. Why physics? Till 40 years he earned money. Founded printing house, let out Pennsylvanian newspaper even received the order for printing of the first paper dollars from the state. Without having got a systematic education, tested thirst for science. The science, or as then spoke, physiophilosophy - attracted Franklin for many years. On own money founded in 1731 the USA first public library, in 1743 - the American philosophical society, later, in 1751 - Pennsylvanian university.

Since 1746 could already not think of money, choose work to liking and till 1754 with enthusiasm to pursue science. The main scientific researches of Franklin are connected with electricity. Many heard only about its experiences with a kite and about the invention of the lightning rod. But the knowledge of electricity which is available by this time was separate and represented the mass of the incoherent supervision and the confused theories invested with foggy terms.

Franklin at first systematized what was already known, then purposefully put scientific experiments and developed the theory. Even modern terminology of electricity goes back to Franklin. It entered terms standard now: battery, condenser, conductor, charge, category, winding and others, and also designations of opposite electric states pluses and minus. A big merit of Franklin is also that he for the first time pointed to communication between the electric and magnetic phenomena. During experiences in 1750 - 1751 he observed magnetization of a sewing needle at the category through it four Leiden cans.

His experimental approach was the greatest scientific contribution of Franklin. Its methodology of an analitichn is also objective. It set far forward experimental science. Besides, its theoretical researches had character which Einstein calls to operating rooms . Great scientific achievements of Franklin are caused by the fact that experiments which he put or offered were absolutely original and had crucial importance.

Franklin`s attention as scientist, also other natural phenomena attracted. He collected extensive data on gales (a north - OST) and explained their origin. With its participation measurements of speed, width and depth of Gulf Stream, and this current (the name which Franklin gave) were taken it was plotted.

Franklin`s works gained world recognition. It was elected the honorary member of many scientific organizations and academies, including the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences. However the width of its interests did not allow it to pay enough attention to science. Since 1754 it seriously politicized. Undoubtedly, successful work of Franklin in this area was promoted not only by his personal qualities, but also huge popularity as the citizen and scientific, recognized leader of the American science widely famous around the world much.

Of course, the carried-out division of life of such great person into three parts is a little conditional, but it is logical. Compatriots estimated Franklin`s merits the placement of his portrait on the hundred-dollar note. We almost all at the end of the last century carried them in pockets, maybe, and without knowing whom was this person. Now almost we do not carry, but it here at anything. He deserved that we knew more both about it, and about his thoughts not only in the field of physics.]