How Milyutin created vsesoslovny army in Russia? Part second.
Experience of the Crimean war, prompt development of military science and acceptance on arms of the cut weapon demanded considerable change of all system of combat training of troops. Despite active counteraction of supporters “ shagistik “ during milyutinsky reform the principle - to learn troops to what is necessary in the war began to be realized.
At the Ministry of Defence in 1862 it is created “ Committee on the device and formation of troops “ who took active part in development “ Army regulations about front infantry service “. In the new charter the special attention was paid to single training and instilling of skills of knowledge of the weapon. In 1863 the order on training of recruits which demanded to teach soldiers to exercises with the weapon and firing in the purpose, to rules of a loose and sherenozhny system, engineer business and actions on various district was issued.
The new principles of military preparation demanded from the military personnel of high physical qualities. In troops gymnastic activity and fencing is entered, gymnastic towns and special strengthenings - predecessors modern " are under construction; obstacle courses “.
Requirements to a professionalnoypodgotovka of officers raise, it becomes obligatory and constant. Carrying out with officers of tactical doctrines and classes on districts, the solution of oral and written tactical tasks, carrying out lectures and conversations in various military disciplines is entered into practice. For professional development of officers, working off of new policy strokes and practice of possession of new samples of the weapon open shooting and cavalry officer schools. The special attention in troops is paid to training of young officers.
The relation to the general development of soldiers changes. In parts schools for training of soldiers in the diploma are created, libraries open. For the lowest ranks begin to issue special magazines “ Soldier`s conversation “ and “ Readings for soldiers “.
The taken measures allowed to increase considerably the level of combat training of troops that was practically confirmed in the course russko - the Turkish war of 1877 - 78 years.
During reform it was necessary to solve the most complex problem - to cardinally change rekrutsky system of completing of troops which constrained already many decades development of army and did not allow to create the prepared reserves on a war case.
In January, 1874 after rough debate and rigid resistance of opponents of reform the Charter about a vsesoslovny compulsory military service was adopted. Protection of a throne and the Fatherland appeared in it a sacred duty of each Russian citizen. All man`s population without distinction of estates which reached 20 years was subject to a compulsory military service.
Total period of service was determined: in army of 15 years (6 - an active service and 9 - in a stock), on fleet of 10 years (7 - an active service and 3 - in a stock). A significant amount of privileges for recruits depending on their education, a marital and property status was entered. Doctors, teachers, scientists and arts, priests, considerable part " were exempted from an appeal; foreign “ population. At the same time the main privileges to the nobility granted still by Peter III were cancelled.
Introduction of a vsesoslovny compulsory military service in spite of the fact that in practice it did not become general, allowed Russia to create mass army and to organize preparation of reserves.
The important place in milyutinsky reform was taken by modernization of army and fleet. Consistently enter several samples of cut small arms into armies, did not stop on Berdan No. 2 rifle with a tetrahedral bayonet yet. The Berdan rifle as its began to call, had range of firing of 1500 steps and rate of fire of 8 - 9 shots in a minute, differed in simplicity of a design and good accuracy of fight. It surpassed the guns taken advantage in the European armies in many qualities. There were three kinds of this rifle: infantry, dragoon and Cossack. The revolver of system of Smith and Vesson with rate of fire of 6 shots in a minute was taken advantage.
Thanks to developments of domestic scientists - gunners the steel and bronze tools which are charged from state part are taken advantage. “ New tools of our field artillery, - the Minister of War wrote the emperor, - on the qualities do not leave to wish nothing the best and not only do not concede to tools of other European states at all, but in many respects surpass them “.
On fleet sailing are succeeded by the steam armored ships.
Transition to the cut long-range weapon exerted considerable impact on development of new forms of military operations, promoted improvement of the Russian industry. Unfortunately, from - for backwardness of own industrial base and insufficient financing rearmament went very slowly and still the long time in army remained on arms a significant amount of the outdated weapon.
In the sixties to armies it was carried out voyenno - judicial reform. During its carrying out the task to lift a moral condition of army, to promote formation of call of duty and honor, and as a result - to change the relation to soldier`s service was set. The Disciplinary charter, the Charter of internal service, Voyenno - the judgment charter, Army regulations about punishments, the Provision on protection of military discipline and disciplinary punishments are entered into armies. They proclaim protection of honor and dignity of the soldier. The corporal punishments dishonoring human dignity, but as " are cancelled; temporary measure “ punishments by birches remain. The court of society of officers which could make decisions on removal from the officer environment of unworthy is entered. The system of warships is created (regimental, voyenno - district and the Main military court).
The military reform which is carried out by D. A. Milyutin allowed to create the mass, well prepared army capable in short terms considerably to increase the structure due to mobilization expansion. Despite the progressiveness, reform had limited character, was carried out in the conditions of strong resistance both in military circles, and in the leaders of the state.]