How Milyutin created vsesoslovny army in Russia? Part one.
Defeat of Russia in the Crimean war of 1853 - 56 showed military weakness of the country, serious shortcomings of the organization of army and military management. In army urgent transformations were required. According to the order of the emperor the special commission " was created; for improvement on military unit “. Unfortunately, the commission was engaged “ improvements “ (simplification of front charters, drawing up the new program of combat training, modernization of some types of arms etc.) but not reforming of all military system. In Russia started large-scale military reform only in the early sixties when the Ministry of Defence was headed by Dmitry Alekseevich Milyutin.
In February, 1862 the report prepared under the leadership of the Minister of War in whom the program of radical military restructurings was stated was submitted to Alexander II. The essence of transformations was reduced to creation of the modern mass personnel army capable to provide reliable protection of the state. The report was the military of reform (it sometimes call milyutinsky), which mentioned all parties of military science is approved and formed a basis for carrying out, but most deeply captured three of its areas: military management, completing of army and training of military shots.
The system of military management underwent essential reforming, there was a transition from rigid centralization to wide independence and an initiative of commanders on places. In 1864. it was accepted “ Provision on military districts “. In the territory of Russia 15 military districts were entered: Warsaw, Vilensky, Kiev, Odessa, St. Petersburg, Moscow, Finnish, Riga, Kharkiv, Kazan, Caucasian, Turkistan, Orenburg, West - Siberian, East - Siberian. Top military commanders were at the head of districts, often they were also the general - governors, connecting the military and civil power in the hands. In the district all functions of military management concentrated that considerably increased efficiency of the management of troops. Voyenno - the district administration consisted from voyenno - a county council, a district staff and managements: quartermaster, artillery, engineering and inspectors of military hospitals. Divisions which chiefs received large powers on the organization of all parties of their life and combat training became the highest tactical unit.
In parallel there took place reorganization of the central military management. In 1869 it was accepted “ Provision on the Ministry of Defence “ which defined its new structure. In the ministry seven head departments (quartermaster, artillery, engineering, voyenno - educational institutions, voyenno - medical, voyenno - judicial and irregular troops), two inspections (a cavalry and rifle battalions) and various committees were created. Considerably functions of the Council of War extended. The Head department of the General Staff was created. The position of the chief of a staff of a division was at the same time entered.
In 1869 it was accepted, and in 1873 it is specified “ The Provision on field management of armies, cases and groups in a wartime “. Situation considerably simplified structure of field management of field army and significantly expanded possibilities of commanders-in-chief which were granted the right to conduct military operations being conformed with a situation, being guided by the approved general plan.
Reform of military management allowed to eliminate excessive centralization, to considerably increase an initiative and the responsibility for the made decisions on places and almost to reduce the office of military management by a half.
The system of military education in which there was a transition from training of officers - the carriers of exclusive military spirit deprived of own opinion and independence to training of comprehensively educated, initiative military professionals underwent considerable reforming.
Voyenno - educational institutions were divided into four categories. The academies giving the higher military and vocational education treated the first. The second category included the military and yunkersky colleges, special classes of Pazhesky and Finnish military schools training officers for troops. The third category was made by military gymnasiums and pro-gymnasiums which gave the general education. The fourth category included military schools which trained technical specialists, an unter - officers and paramedics.
During reform two new military academies were created (Sea and Voyenno - legal) and reception of listeners in the existing academies is increased (The General Staff, Artillery, Engineering and Mediko - hururgichesky). Curricula of academies were processed taking into account a bigger practical orientation. The centralized training of teachers for voyenno - educational institutions became a considerable innovation.
Cadet cases (except Pazhesky and Finnish) were liquidated where young men for 7 - 9 years were practically isolated from society and literally “ became impregnated “ arakcheevsky spirit. Instead of military schools military and yunkersky colleges, and for preparation for receipt in them - military gymnasiums and pro-gymnasiums are created. Military gymnasiums with the seven-year term of training gave the general secondary education and trained young men for receipt in military colleges from which they in three years were issued second lieutenants or cornets. Military pro-gymnasiums with the four-year term of training gave the general primary education, their graduates could come to biennial yunkersky schools. To graduates of yunkersky schools gave the rank of sword belts - the cadet, and they through a certain term received officer ranks in troops. Assignment of officer ranks to persons without special preparation was stopped and was allowed only by way of exception in fighting conditions. Army an unter - to officers also we volnoopredelyayushchitsya, having primary education, now for receiving an officer rank it was necessary to graduate from yunkersky school or to pass special examinations.
For training of military experts of a local link were used four-year-old artillery, topographical and voyenno - medical assistant`s schools. They gave good military preparation, and to their graduates, after a certain service life in the lower ranks, the officer rank or a cool rank could be given. Unter - officers began to be trained in special educational teams or schools with the two-year term of training.
The taken measures could increase considerably the level of preparation of the officer case, military experts of a local link and an unter - officers. But “ patient “ for the Russian army the issue of training of reserve officers was not resolved.
Termination of article]