How to gain the diploma about the termination of Lukyanovsky prison?
Are in Kiev the perceptible bulky building is gray - white color if to look at it from above, then it is easy to identify an outline of the monumental letter “ ε “ - as the empress`s monogram immortalized in architecture. More than two centuries to a construction. Windows of three floors remind loopholes in thick walls - all of them are crossed out by strong shod lattices. It is prison. More true - one of cases of the pre-trial detention center located on Lukyanovsky yara.
Nearby the noisy city highway, a market, but from views of leisure pedestrians the institution is hidden by boxes of multystoried houses - so that you, even taking place in ten meters from ancient penal institution, will not notice it. The same to whom life presented the proof of justice of the aphorism advising not to renounce prison, the road is known here.
Having stepped for steel gate, having passed the distributor, a settler, the store and having got in prepared local government a chamber, everyone already during the first hours lukyanovsky stay realizes that it not that place of which you dream all the conscious life. Here behind a high reliable wall, behind seven fences from a barbed wire making perimeter, time passes in a particular treatment.
As remember these walls, these chambers, these towers of security guards located on corners over perimeter much and as a little they tell....
From the report on the Head prison department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire for 1899 it is visible that prisons were available three types:
1. unbearable (them was on seven in Kerchinsk and on the island of Sakhalin),
2. corrective prisoner offices,
3. prisons or prison locks provincial.
The Kiev Lukyanovsky prison belongs to the third look - it is the provincial prison lock. On “ capacity “ enters along with two St. Petersburg, Moscow, Vladimir ten leaders of the branch.
In the same report it is specified that chamber placements in prison on 595 places from which 46 chambers for single contents. But it is frequent “ loaded “ more than one thousand. So, in the column “ one-day structure “ as of 1. 01. 1900 904 prisoners were registered. The collegiate adviser Maguza Sergey Grigoryevich was the chief of the Kiev provincial prison then, his senior assistant in a rank of the lieutenant bore a terrible name Ivan Ivanovich Arakcheev, the prison priest attributed the father Pavel Starovoytenko. And as the chief provincial prison inspector served Ivan Petrovich Sementovsky.
Also people extraordinary, destinies remarkable and in any case instructive occurred among their wards.
in the Spring of 1900 in Kiev in Literaturno - artistic society reading the paper on the subject " had to take place; Heinrich Ibsen as moralist “. The Norwegian playwright became then one of masters of thoughts of Russian intelligentsia, his work were widely put on theaters, printed, causing brisk disputes and discussions. Ibsen`s creativity in general enjoyed at the turn of the century very wide popularity in all European countries - it attracted one with the protest against foundations of bourgeois society, others - a poeticizing of proud loneliness. Not surprisingly, as among the Kiev theater-goers, writers, students of university the subject of the paper caused keen interest.
In the evening on April 29 in the house No. 3 on Fundukleevskaya Street, in being at the student`s table apartment where students of university the prince Konstantin Andronikov and Zborovskiye`s brothers lived, gathered to fifty persons interested to listen to rehearsal of reading the paper before a big public statement. But action was interrupted by the police officers who rushed into the room, Cossacks and personally the chief of the Kiev gendarme management general Novitsky who disposed to arrest all and to send escorted by to Lukyanovsky prison. Among arrested there were a famous writer-publicist V. V. Vodovozov with the wife and future academician - the historian E. V. Tarle, at that time the undergraduate of university, well and, certainly, the speaker - ibsenoved, twenty-five-year-old Anatoly Lunacharsky.
Vigilant fillers and gendarmes it is possible to understand too - on a nose on May 1, the administration waits for political performances, demonstrations against the mode and to that a similar outrage - and here such suspicious meeting!
All were locked in prison and slowly began to understand.
For what only people did not get to Lukyanovsky prison - much on its white walls it would be possible to write fascinating stories. But for reading and discussion of quite legal writer!.
Concerning the speaker it was absolutely clear to the authorities that before them the person with obviously hostile to the existing political system, quite developed socialist views. Still he was noticed by the pupil of the First Kiev gymnasium in sympathy to labor movement and “ it is registered “ in security office.
The four for behavior in the certificate - result of activity of the gymnasia magazine “ Free word “ and participation in illegal working circles - did not give to Lunacharsky the chance to come to higher educational institutions of Russia.
To study he went to University of Zurich that did not promote formation of the law-abiding citizen at all. On “ to the Moscow business “ year prescription he which just came back from - for borders, already managed to visit Tagansky prison. And here - the Lukyanovsky lock as a result of visit of mother living in Kiev. Lunacharsky in a chamber spent about two months, expecting recognition of own innocence.
Those years the Lukyanovsky prison led surprising life. Political prisoners, and those was much, managed to organize the special internal schedule of the contents, adjusted relationship with administration. The highly experienced prisoner Uritsky Moisey Solomonovich was a head political.
He in seventeen years will become the commandant of revolutionary Petrograd and will direct revolt and storm of the Winter Palace. Kiyevskaya Street called by his name will not be touched by a wave of political renamings. Unlike the street of a name of his successor of Kirov. Perhaps, just because Kirov was not among prisoners of Lukyanovsky prison? However, Funduklya too in her did not sit.
And so Moisey Uritsky achieved permission to communicate besides walks, to visit chambers of companions for political, there were even cases when arrested were allowed to go home on parole for the weekend on a visit, with a condition that they surely by Monday returned to an arrangement. And the contract was never broken. There were no escapes from Lukyanovsky prison. Many tens of volumes of books were in the address among prisoners - works on philosophy, history, languages, statistics, to natural sciences were written out in chambers and carefully studied by inhabitants of prison.
For the majority “ politically unreliable “ listeners of the paper about Ibsen business ended with dispatch to various spaces for public supervision of police. And it in spite of the fact that the prosecutor of the Kiev trial chamber also did not find in a meeting on Fundukleevskaya Street any political reasons, having recognized in the conclusion that “ it was not the criminal meeting of members of social democratic society, and just was going to listen to youth the paper about Ibsen`s dramas “.
The person under surveillance Lunacharsky returned to the place of the reference - Kaluga where, waiting for the decision on “ to the Moscow business “ and the subsequent dispatch to the Vologda province, worked hard, wrote, translated from different languages, communicated with same as it unreliable. And with gratitude remembered the Kiev Lukyanovsky prison where not only finished the paper about Ibsen, but also got acquainted with many interesting people who as well as it sincerely believed in need of fight for social justice, for human dignity and freedom.
Very much of them in two decades Lunacharsky, using the situation and authority, will help to avoid a terrible fate, will promote to emigrate from the wounded Russia, asserting also in Council of People`s Commissars the right of each person for own opinion, for a mistake, for discrepancy with opinion of the majority.
- you Put these theaters in a coffin! - his Lenin will reproach, - be engaged - better in education.
And Lunacharsky of all himself will give Narkomatu of national education, and at night to write plays for theater, scientific works, reviews and memoirs.
There is a play and about the most Lunacharsky - the playwright which would be curious to be put in the hall of Lukyanovsky prison - to show to today`s local population greetings from their former cellmate. That each present prisoner remembered recognition of the national commissioner:
- Me Lukyanovsky prison and references were given not less, than University of Zurich! ]