How to avoid mistakes at cultivation of saintpaulias? Part 1
of the Saintpaulia (Saintpaulia), or African violets , belong to family of gesneriyevy. Their Homeland - Uzambarsky mountains of tropical Africa where about 18 types of violets grow. These are low grassy plants with the thick roundish trimmed leaflets forming the socket. Depending on a grade coloring of leaves varies from light-green to dark and the drill - green. Over the socket of leaves tsvetonosa with flowers tower. Under favorable conditions for maintenance of a saintpaulia 6 - 10 months in a year blossom.
Throughout already several centuries with them selection work thanks to which grades with simple and terry flowers of the most various form and coloring are removed is conducted. Today in culture there are more than 1000 grades of violets. Classification of saintpaulias is made by the sizes of plants, type of flowers, type and coloring of a sheet plate. But it is a separate subject into which I will not go deep.
Conditions of keeping. Saintpaulias are photophilous plants, however the direct sunlight for them is pernicious. Leaves and flowers strongly suffer from solar burns. They easily grow at a northern window and even just under fluorescent lamps in any corner of the room. Plants should be placed freely that they were well lit and did not adjoin leaves. Place lamps at the height about 30 cm from the shelf with plants. Duration of artificial lighting - 14 hours a day. The main thing that in this place there were no drafts and congestions of a tobacco smoke!
It is possible to contain saintpaulias and at the southern windows, but provided that from February to October they will be protected from direct beams of the sun. For this purpose directly on glass pull tulle or a gauze on height of 20 - 40 cm. In the veseena - the summer period is required similar shading and at east window in the morning, and on western - after a lunch. During the summer period it is undesirable to take out saintpaulias on a balcony.
Optimum air temperature for violets from 20 to 24 °C. Sharp difference of temperature condition is harmful to plants. Critical points: from 13 °C and below, from 29 °C and above. During blossoming moderate temperature - 21 - 23 °C, without sharp fluctuations is optimum. In the winter of a violet contain at a temperature from 16 to 20 °C. At too high temperature and dryness of air buds are not put, and already available give small flowers which quickly fade.
Too warm conditions of keeping with poecilophyllous grades bring in a case to them “ to gardening “ and very difficult happens to return them diversity. Therefore temperature not above 20 °C is necessary for them. The matter is that in heat there is an active reproduction of azotfiksiruyushchy bacteria that leads to increase in nitrogen in the soil and the strengthened development of a chlorophyll. Then leaves turn green and lose the diversity.
Water violets with the settled water of room temperature, but better is even several degrees warmer. It is especially important during the winter period: when watering by warm water roots do not overcool. It is necessary to water plants carefully, to the region of a pot or in the pallet. The main thing - that water did not get on leaves and to the center of the socket. The earth lump always has to be damp, but water in the pallet should not stand. To water only after drying of the top layer of the earth, the probability of rotting of a root neck from remoistening so decreases. Nothing terrible if a violet even slightly a podvyala, after watering she easily settles into shape.
Time or two in a month violets feed up mineral fertilizers. The blossoming copies it is necessary to fertilize podkormkam with the increased content of potassium. For poecilophyllous grades the content of nitrogen in fertilizers has to be minimum. Before top dressing the earth lump should be humidified previously with clear water and only in 20 - 30 minutes to bring top dressing.
Saintpaulias prefer damp air (about 50%), but it is undesirable to spray them, it is better to put on trays with damp peat or crude pebble. Favorably also placement between pots with violets of glasses with water affects. On batteries of a central heating it is possible to hang up damp towels. From time to time it is necessary to clear leaves of violets of dust by means of a soft brush. Some flower growers wash out them under a shower warm water (they grow in the nature and in the rain!). But expose on light only after good drying to avoid emergence of spots and burns.
For the best blossoming of violets it is necessary to delete carefully the deflowered flowers and brushes which turned yellow or the damaged leaves. At the same time it is necessary to remember that flower brushes are formed in bosoms of leaves and excessive removal of leaves leads to poor blossoming.
To be continued …]