Rus Articles Journal

To whom fire on Kampo shines di a fyor?

Time are relentless.

Awareness of the caducity by the person, extremities by all means generates questions of for what, actually, life is given it, about appointment whether about c e the N e short stay in this world

Is something for the sake of what certainly it is not a pity to give own life?

How to distinguish it N e h t oh, if it exists not to be mistaken? All the same time as it is passionless - objective category, will cure everything. Whether it is worth resisting?.

And what it for mysterious strength is given the elite, - ability to win against time?

Genius?

Titian of veins hundred years. To it in turn there were princes, kings, emperors, patiently expecting when the genius writes their portrait - a guarantee of overcoming of time.

at the same time is quite enough small fire in the palace to destroy completely the most perfect portrait and the whole gallery of princes, infant, dukes and doges.

I who overcomes time - the one who is represented on a cloth, or the artist? Or the one who will of a case just escaped during Titian`s era?.

We live on the Gregorian calendar, on it we conduct the chronology because the Pope Grigory XIII enjoined to eliminate the shortage which collected for Julian centuries in ten days and laid the foundation to new " style;.

Is that Pope Grigory XIII who blessed the blood-thirsty duke Alba destroying in the Netherlands Protestants in tens of thousands that the solemn prayer in commemoration of day of Saint Varfolomey when on the night of August 24 (on old style) 1572 in France more than thirty thousand Huguenots were cut out served.

His successors on the Holy See Pavel of IV and Kliment of VIII are not immortalized by the name of calendars, but also they succeeded in formidable business of fight against heresy much. And at them on all Catholic world fires the burning thousands of heretics smoked, - sacred inquisition without cease observed purity of belief.

The church called the first inquisitor of Jesus Christ more than once. Christ tells

In the Gospel from Ioann to the doubting disobedient: Who will not be in me, will be cast out as the branch and will dry up, and such branches collect and throw into fire, and they I burn down t. (Chapter XV, Art. 6) to

This passage was especially expensive to inquisitors because served them as the direct instruction, the management to actions, the mandate for a vozzhiganiye of the fires crowning with an auto-da-fe. the institute has inquisition of no

of Exact birthday, but already in the first third of the 13th century (just in the years of formation and expansion from the Mongolian deserts to Baltic of the Golden Horde which conquered almost all Russian principalities) business management of apostates, sectarians and heretics was entrusted to the begging monastic order of Dominicans. And these Lord`s dogs undertook the organization of business with passion and fanaticism by boundless.

The historical paradox consists that for an era of rise of human spirit, blossoming of its creative power, the Renaissance of arts and sciences time of the most black, most rigid domination of inquisition also is the share of Renaissance.

And maybe not paradox it at all, and regularity - both Giotto, and Guus, and Leonardo, and Raphael, and Duerer, and Columbus, and Zhanna could be only in the same historical scenery, as Loyola, Cortes, Richelieu, Siskst of IV was already published by

To the middle of the 16th century Copernicus`s work About the address of heavenly spheres undermining not only all fundamentals of natural sciences of the time, but also foundations of religious outlook.

could not Stop progress of human knowledge even the heavy-duty device of inquisition which had for this purpose all legal rights and huge material resources.

Besides in 1548 in Nol`s city near Naples the boy the named Giordano Filippo Bruno was born. having Early learned to read and write with

, it in fourteen years came to a Dominican award in Naples. Showing a great interest to sciences, reading the books forbidden by church, constantly derided empty and boastful monks. Soon, certainly, inquisition began to be interested in it fixedly. Escaping from prosecutions, Bruno leaves the monastery, runs through Rome to Northern Italy, and then at all moves to Switzerland.

Giordano Bruno spent about two decades out of the homeland, living in France, England, Germany. And all the time continued to study, communicating with outstanding humanists of these countries, visiting educational institutions, teaching philosophy at universities, participating in numerous scientific discussions in which by all means brilliantly disproved aristotelsko - church doctrines, wrote the numerous works, laying the foundation new philosophy as it called the doctrine.

Oratorical skill, depth of knowledge and breadth of views got Bruno respect in the scientific environment of Europe. Its books enjoyed wide popularity.

of Subjects watched each step of the philosopher spies of inquisition more fixedly, seeing in it not without the bases of the dangerous enemy of church, placing everywhere thousands of traps to seize him and to deal shortly with him.

The Venetian patrician Giovanni Mochenigo persistently and persistently invited the famous scientist to himself on a visit to Venice for training in memory art - promised to create magnificent conditions and to pay generously. Friends in every possible way dissuaded Bruno from a trip, being afraid that the aristocrat Mochenigo acts from dictation of inquisition as the agent - the provoker. And friends were right.

After a while after arrival to Venice in the spring of 1592 Giordano Bruno was arrested and imprisoned. Giovanni Mochenigo`s denunciation remained.

At first I intended to study at it as I already reported orally, without suspecting what this is the criminal. I noted all his views to make a denunciation to a my Lord, but was afraid that it did not leave. As he was going to make. Therefore I locked it in the room to detain and as I consider it obsessed with demons, I ask to take somewhat quicker against it measures. I can point note sacred service to the book seller Chyotto and Giacomo Bertano`s messer, too the book seller He visited also Andrea Morosini`s academy where many noblemen gathered.

are not in trouble Caused to them for me any value, and I am ready to give it to your court because in everything I wish to remain the faithful and obedient son of church. In conclusion most respectfully I kiss hands of a my Lord.

Four years Bruno transported by the sea to Rome was almost buried alive in casemates of inquisition which this oblivion tried to break his will to resistance. The interrogations which began at the very end of 1596 encountered resolute refusal of the prisoner to admit the guilt. Did not yield desirable results and torture. The resistant behavior of the philosopher corresponded to his doctrine: Who is carried away by greatness of its business, does not feel horror of death - Bruno in the treatise " wrote; Press of the seals .

The congregation of inquisition judging Giordano Bruno repentances and self-condemnations resolved to achieve from him renunciation of his ideas and reconciliation with church.

Not so much physical violence over the philosopher and the humanist how many his spiritual suicide in the opinion of all pupils and followers was the purpose of the church which was going to meet by loud victorious trial of the persistent heretic year 1600, the beginning of the new century first met on a Gregorian calendar.

And in Moscow these years after suppression of an old grand-ducal dynasty Boris Godunov, the contemporary Bruno sits down on an imperial throne.

The cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, the nicknamed homunculus (he was dwarfish growth), with all Jesuit cruelty achieved a goal. The flood of 1598 flooded prison vaults, and Giordano met the fiftieth anniversary standing up to a throat in water among floating rats. Its chamber did not open several weeks.

B rat Giordano Bruno, the late Giovanni`s son, Nolanets imposed from monks the master of sacred divinity declared that he should not and does not wish to renounce, has no what to renounce, sees no reason for renunciation and does not know what to renounce - such unfavourable conclusion followed after the numerous exhausting interrogations and an eight-year solitary confinement of the scientist who was sincerely believing that all stars what are visible it is the worlds of the infinite Universe, the worlds, perhaps, even the best, than this world, that is the globe { / I]

On January 20, 1600 the most Saint lord father Kliment VIII decided and enjoined - yes this business will be finished !

On February 17 Giordano Bruno was brought to Campo di Fyore, Tsvetov Square in Rome, bared and having tied to a column, burned.

Executioners conducted the philosopher with a gag in a mouth that together with it to kill him words. Sophisticated experts, they except an iron chain drew all body sentenced by a wet rope which under the influence of fire shrank and crashed into a body.

The last words of Bruno on a fire were: I die the martyr voluntarily .

All its works were brought in the Index of the Forbidden books in which they appeared up to its last edition in 1948.

at the end of the XIX century on the eve of a century XX on the place Giordano Bruno`s executions in the center of Rome at Tsvetov Square was erected a monument. It also until now costs there. In only several minutes of driving from Vatican.

The Nerazjedinimy neighbourhood is four hundred years old.

The Neapolitan son of the Renaissance Giordano Bruno belonging to all mankind adequately enters also the third millennium. Estimated on the Gregorian calendar.

The just death in one century spares life in all centuries of the futures - Giordano Bruno wrote in due time.

The cardinal Roberto Bellarmino too among us: in sixteen years after Bruno`s execution he headed court on Galilei and triumphed, approving the formula which immortalized it - burning should betray young heretics on the ground that the longer they live, the bigger damnation will be undergone !

Not time passes it, we pass it ]