70 years of Yalta conference: how lived also what was drunk by Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill?Exactly 70 years ago with the participation of the USSR, Great Britain and the USA Yalta conference took place. It is difficult to overestimate its results: the decisions which in many respects changed history of all Europe were made. However informal party of a meeting “ big three “ is not less interesting. About in what palaces there lived guests of honor that they ate and what was drunk during receptions, read in this article.
Exactly 70 years ago, from February 4 to February 11, 1945, the Crimean conference known in the history took place. Meeting of heads of three allied powers - I. V. Stalin (USSR), F. D. Roosevelt (USA) and U. Churchill (Great Britain) - took place in Yalta, in the Livadiysky palace. At that time military operations continued only in the territory of Germany, and the result of war was obvious to the states of the anti-Hitlerite coalition. Coordination of final defeat of fascist Germany, and also the principles of the post-war device of Europe became the purpose of conference.
In the communique it was told about results of conference: “ Terms, the sizes and coordination of new and even more powerful blows which will be struck in heart of Germany by our armies and voyenno - air forces from the East, the West, North and South were completely coordinated and in details planned. Nazi Germany is doomed “.
Not less important results of a meeting “ big three “ the resolutions which in many respects changed a world order for several decades ahead are. At conference allies made the decision on division of Germany into four zones of occupation - Soviet, English and American, and also French, in case of its consent. Creation of supervisory authority of allied powers was provided.
The USSR made demands about the German reparations of 10 billion dollars: means had to arrive in the form of export of goods and capitals, and also use of human force. It should be noted that this requirement of Stalin though was recognized lawful, but it was not completely executed: This sum seemed to Churchill too big and subsequently only the outdated equipment came to the USSR from Germany.
During conference issues on creation of the UN were resolved. Stalin achieved inclusion in the organization not only RSFSR, but also Ukraine and Belarus, appealing to the fact that in the territory of these countries there were most considerable destructions, not to mention human losses. The USSR achieved strengthening of the positions in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia and expressed a consent to enter war against Japan in 2 - 3 months after the end of war in Europe. The Soviet party received a consent to accession of the Kuril Islands and the Southern Sakhalin for this promise.
to Everyone - on the palace, or small cunning of comrade. Stalin
But each historical event has also an informal party, what is discussed in a lobby - and it is not less interesting to us, descendants of the great power. It is possible to imagine what was cost by preparation for Yalta conference in the Crimea where at that time the ruin with might and main reigned.
On January 8, 1945 the order " was signed; About special events in the Crimea “ , and less than in three weeks Beria already reported on Stalin on the done work. From all Soviet Union there arrived builders and cars with building materials, the equipment and even furniture here. For several months substations were established. Yalta and Sevastopol ports repaired moorings, beacons and navigation equipment, prepared water-supplies and fuels. Products, service personnel were from everywhere taken.
Game cost candles - the USSR it was necessary to achieve safety of the territorial borders, and Stalin understood how important to hold conference in our territory.
Conferees settled down in three Crimean palaces: delegation of the USSR in Yusupov Palace, delegation of the USA - in Livadiyskom and delegation of Great Britain led by Churchill - in Vorontsov Palace. Places were chosen not incidentally. All understood that Roosevelt cannot independently move and as meetings were held in the Livadiysky palace, the choice it for the American delegation was clear. It contradicted the diplomatic protocol, but the success of negotiations was more important for Stalin. Rooms to the American president prepared according to the highest category, with all conveniences so Roosevelt even refused the camp-bed. Considered also its taste: curtains in its rooms, a tile in a bathroom, phones and covers - all this was the blue color loved by the American guest.
The Vorontsov Palace for the English delegation was chosen according to architectural style: it was designed by the architect from England. Knowing about Churchill`s addiction to smoking of cigars at a fireplace, birch firewood from the Crimean trees was specially prepared (now they are included in the Red List).
At the historian Edward Radzinsky it is possible to read how the choice of palaces for delegations was commented by Stalin, telling about it to the colleagues Beria and Molotov. “ Companion Stalin managed to outwit Churchill during Yalta conference. Lodged Roosevelt as patient`s person, in the Livadiysky palace where there took place conference. Itself lodged in quite modest Yusupov Palace, and provided to Churchill magnificent Vorontsov Palace. Every morning we gathered in Livadiysky. But me to go seven kilometers there, and to Churchill - fifteen. So companion Stalin managed to solve in private with Roosevelt a lot of things! “
That there is the Russian hospitality
Besides official actions, guests of honor could enjoy excursions. Sevastopol, the Nikitsky botanical garden, a house museum of Chekhov in Yalta, a summer camp “ Artek “. Any details were important for political success, and the host tried as it could. But separate attention it is worthy “ culinary " page; Yalta conference.
The feast began in airfield where the English and American guests arrived. Practically the most landing strip had tents with the laid tables. Here it was possible to drink a glass of tea with a lemon and to have a snack on black bread and butter. But Stalin charged laying of comrade Egnatoshvili, to the employee of bodyguard who is perfectly understanding what is a top-level formal reception. Therefore nobody was limited to tea. On tables there were bottles with vodka, champagne and cognac, caviar and sturgeon, a salmon and the Georgian cheeses was spread out. Devices moved silver, melkhiorovy and steel - any aluminum.
Notice, war still went, hunger and destructions reached the apogee, but conferees fully experienced power of the Russian hospitality. The general - the major of the U.S. Air Force L. Kyyuter so writes about it: “ As first course behind a breakfast the glass of the Crimean cognac moved the average sizes. Cognac and introductory toasts were followed by repeated entertainments caviar with vodka. After them cold appetizers with white wine were served, the Crimean apples with numerous glasses of quite sweet Crimean champagne were served in the end, the glass of hot tea to which cognac moved was the last dish. And it was only the breakfast! How someone could, with the stomach full of all this, make reasonable or logical decisions in questions of vital interests of the United States? “
The deputy minister of foreign affairs of England Alexander Kadogan noted in the diary: “ The prime minister - the minister feels well, though whips buckets the Caucasian champagne which would affect the health of any ordinary person “.
Stalin was an owner at a table at Yalta conference. The assistant to the Secretary of State and the official translator of Roosevelt Charles Bolen noted that the atmosphere always was very warm, drank 45 toasts for a unification of powers. Roosevelt was delighted with wines from the well-known Massandrovsky cellars, and the Armenian cognac pleased Churchill. Subsequently Stalin even sent to allies shanks of grapevines and several boxes of strong drink. They say that after this meeting in California the foundation to the real winemaking was laid.
The service personnel were placed in the Livadiysky palace. All waitresses had experience as nurses, wore a special uniform and that their movements were silent for guests, footwear to them lined with cotton wool. Subsequently all military personnel and a service staff were awarded by diplomas, a third received which were made by cooks and waiters.
Many historians note that the head of the Soviet power skillfully used weaknesses of allies in food and comfortable conditions, but itself at the same time remained is modest in the addictions. Ate usual products, loved Georgian wine, but nobody saw it drunk. It was the usual policy and diplomacy at the high level.
It is interesting that after conference the head of the English state Winston Churchill left the Crimea not at once. He visited Sapun - the mountain, the cruiser “ Voroshilov “ and Balaklava where British were at war during the Crimean war in 1854-1855 (then one of Churchill`s ancestors died). The American president departed next day, but long still remembered apartments of the Livadiysky palace. Speak, Roosevelt was so delighted that even told how, having retired, he with pleasure would buy the palace for the family.
Thanks to a meeting “ big three “ about the Crimea then for the first time started talking around the world. Speak about it and now, but already absolutely in other occasion. So the difficult and interesting destiny happens not only at people, but also at lands.