Rus Articles Journal

What Kalashnikovs in the world are famous for? History of an origin of joint stock company. Part 2

After acceptance of the automatic machine of joint stock company the Kalashnikov elected the permanent residence the city of Izhevsk to arms. At Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant it passed a way from the inventor - self-educated persons to the chief designer of the Soviet army. Mikhail Timofeyevich headed design office, collected in it for many years of assistants and adherents; with the wife grew up daughters and the son who became, as well as the father, the designer of small arms; the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was repeatedly elected the deputy in the Supreme Councils of the USSR and Udmurt.

Acceptance on arms of the Soviet Armed forces of three complexes of small arms - under three various types of cartridges became result of long-term operation of the Kalashnikov and its colleagues over numerous options of automatic small arms in 1950 - 1970 - x. Entered the first complex accepted in 1949 - 1955 7,62 - mm “ intermediate “ boss obr. 1943 and joint stock company / AKS submachine guns. In the mid-fifties the family of Kalashnikovs was replenished with new options: AKN / AKSN with a possibility of installation on them podsvetny night shooting sights of NSP - 2.

In 1959 the modernized complex of automatic small arms consisting of AKM assault rifles / AKMS and manual machine guns of RPK / RPKS is taken advantage of the Soviet army. Subsequently Mikhail Timofeyevich, telling about the attempts to achieve decisive superiority over competitors, remembered: “ Several constructive changes brought in automatic equipment. In the modernized sample we transferred blow of a barrier frame in forward situation on the right side to left. Also gained good effect on a grouping, having improved stability of the weapon in the horizontal plane. Did not satisfy us, and especially main customer, a grouping when firing from steady positions, lying from an emphasis, standing from an emphasis. Exit was found, having entered the delay mechanism of operation of a cock which increased intercyclic time... By the way, these basic changes in a design of the automatic machine helped us to bypass our main competitor G. A. Korobov at the last stage of competitions... and to come forward on such major indicators of fighting qualities of the weapon as reliability and an accuracy of hits “.

Soon some more versions of this infantry weapon are taken advantage: AKMN / AKMCH with fastening under an infrared night shooting sight of NSP - 3 and manual machine guns of RPKN / RPKSN with fastening under an infrared night shooting sight of NSP - 3. Subsequently still the whole family of the weapon calculated under a new universal shooting sight of NSPU was added to them: AKML / AKMSL submachine guns and manual machine guns of RPKL / RPKSL.

To the Kalashnikov and the Izhevsk designers - armorers during creation of the new " complex; automatic machine + manual machine gun “ for the first time it was succeeded to achieve so high extent of army and production unification of the new weapon when the interchangeability coefficient on details and assembly units made in the submachine gun 0,7. In total within family of the weapon of the Kalashnikov (between the AKM assault rifle and a machine gun of RPK) completely unified became 10 knots and 80 details.

So creation of the first complex of small arms of a design of the Kalashnikov under 7,62 - mm " came to the end; intermediate “ boss obr. 1943 which 8 automatic machines and 4 manual machine guns entered. For many years they made a basis of arms of motor-shooting divisions. For development of the automatic machine of JSC Mikhail Timofeyevich it was awarded in 1949 the Stalin (State) award of the first degree, and for works on modernization of the weapon in 1958 - ranks of the Hero of Socialist Work.

The second complex of automatic small arms calculated on use 7,62 - mm vintovochno - the machine-gun boss obr. 1908. it was created by design collective under the leadership of Mikhail Timofeyevich in 1959 - 1963. Its main sample is 7,62 - mm a uniform machine gun of the personal computer / PKS Kalashnikov which can be used as manual - on bipods and as easel - on the machine - a tripod. It combines high maneuverable properties of manual machine guns and power of fire of easel, is simple in service, is reliable and trouble-free in operation. Subsequently this family was filled up still by a number of the samples created on the basis of the personal computer: tank option of PKT, bronetransporterny PKB. During operation of machine guns in troops need of entering into a design of this weapon of a number of improvements appeared. Acceptance on arms of the modernized complex of a uniform machine gun of PKM and its options became result of numerous completions: easel PKMS (on the machine - a tripod of a design of L. V. Stepanov); PKMN (under a night sight); PKMSN (easel with a night sight); PKMT (tank); PKMB (bronetransporterny). In total complex under 7,62 - mm the rifle boss included 10 machine guns. With acceptance of this weapon on arms of the Soviet army to Mikhail Timofeyevich in 1964 the Lenin award was awarded, and in 1971 - the m gave the rank of the Doctor of Engineering.

The third complex of shooting arms - under new 5,45 - mm the boss, is created by the Kalashnikov and its collective in 1965 - 1974. As subsequently Mikhail Timofeyevich remembered: “ Reduction of caliber did not mean simple “ perestvolivaniye “ transition from bigger caliber of the channel of a trunk on smaller as some thought. It absolutely not so. The small caliber concealed in itself many unforeseen features calling into question all work. For example, once you filled the channel of a trunk with water, at the first shot the sample failed. Besides, the shot with water could lead to the most unexpected breakages, and it means that such weapon is unsafe for the shooter. It was put for achievement of the required survivability of a trunk a lot of effort. And only thanks to carrying out a large number of experiences and introduction of new nonconventional changes in a sample design, we managed to get rid of this shortcoming... The new direction bribed the fact that the weapon has to reduce the weight and it is essential to increase efficiency of defeats in comparison with the old classical scheme. At the same time we considered: it is illegal to disregard what already served many years and it is considered the simplest on the device, reliable in work and estimated by many experts as “ the best in world practice “. The made experiments showed that the base of the AKM assault rifle can and prove from the best party here: the classical scheme will manage to stand for itself and to be a worthy competitor of all new developments... We were not the only performers of these works. Staff of other design offices solved this problem with us. For several years many original decisions on the design plan were created and repeatedly tested. All participants of these works as if supplemented each other, resolving by various ways the same issues“.

As a result of comprehensive investigations from a large number of the prototypes presented in 1968 on a competition the winner became 5,45 - mm the Kalashnikov A - 3, created according to the classical scheme on the basis of AKM. The main design feature of the new Kalashnikov was existence of the two-chamber muzzle brake which when firing absorbed about 50% of energy of return. In And - 3 the quantity of cast, stamped and plastic details increased. For vozdushno - landing troops the submachine gun A - 3 with a new design of the metal folding butt developing to the left along a receiver intended. Numerous advantages of the submachine gun A - 3 (the smaller mass, simplicity of a design, the best operational indicators, and also the high technological effectiveness reached thanks to numerous efforts of all Soviet oboronno - an industrial complex for many decades of production of joint stock company / AKM), led to acceptance on arms new 5,45 - Kalashnikov mm. On many indicators it significantly overtook the potential opponents.

In 1974 on arms of the Soviet army in exchange 7,62 - mm of AKM / AKMS Kalashnikovs and manual machine guns of RPK / RPKS the new unified Kalashnikov design weapon complex consisting of 8 samples is accepted: the AK74 submachine gun with a wooden constant butt; the AK74H submachine gun (AK74H2, AK74H3) with fastening under night shooting sights; manual machine guns of RPK74 with a wooden constant butt; RPK74N (RPK74N2; RPK74N3) and airborne forces weapon - the AKC74 submachine guns with a folding metal butt and AKC74H (AKC74H2; AKC74H3); and also manual machine guns of RPKS74 with a folding wooden butt and RPKS74N (RPKS74N2; RPKS74N3).

Along with the regular automatic machine of joint stock company - 74 Kalashnikov in 1973 - 1978 created also its small-sized option - 5,45 - mm the AKS submachine gun - 74U. In 1979 5,45 - mm the AKS Kalashnikov - 74U accept for arms of bombers, mechanics - drivers of military equipment, operators, sappers, calculations of rocket fighting installations, special parts and divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Along with the main option of AKS - 74U also its modifications were issued: AKS - 74UN and AKS - 74UN2, NSPU / NSPU calculated on installation of night bespodsvetochny sights - M

in the middle of 80 - x years designers of Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant developed several models of the universal modified Kalashnikov which subsequently received an index of joint stock company - 74M. This weapon succeeded several models of the Kalashnikov at once: Joint stock company - 74, joint stock company - 74H, AKS - 74 and AKS - 74H. Joint stock company - 74M, having kept all best qualities inherent in Kalashnikovs, at the same time having got a row new, considerably improved its fighting and operational characteristics. On joint stock company - 74M on the left side of a receiver the standard knot of fastening which allowed to establish on all automatic machines as new riflescopes is mounted: 1PN29; USP - 1; PO 3,5h21P; PO 3,5h17,5, and night: NSPU - 3 (1PN51) and PN - 9.

Engineering plant “ Hammer “ in Vyatka Glades, specializing in production of a manual machine gun of the Kalashnikov, modernized the main production. To replace RPK - came 74 and RPKS - 74 new 5,45 - mm the manual machine gun which received the RPK index - 74M. It was characterized by high rates of an accuracy of hits.

In development 5,45 - the mm of a complex of the weapon most brightly showed ability M. T. Kalashnikova rationally to use knots and details of earlier created samples which are already checked by many years of operation. So, from 25 assembly units and 97 details which entered into joint stock company - 74, from the AKM assault rifle 9 assemblies and 52 details (respectively 36% and 53%) are borrowed. Practice of creation of small arms had no similar level of unification yet. For works on creation 5,45 - arms complex mm Mikhail Timofeyevich in 1976 for the second time was awarded ranks of the Hero of Socialist Work. Besides, for the fruitful activity he was awarded by three Orders of Lenin, awards of the Labour Red Banner, Patriotic war of the first degree and many medals of the USSR.

Giving a priority to mind and Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov`s talent in creation reliable and trouble-free joint stock company, belief and the truth serving in our army more than 50 years, it is necessary to pay to tribute and long-term work of many Izhevsk, Kovrov, Tula and vyatsko - polyansky engineers, technicians and workers, and also military whose work helped to bring this weapon to its final completeness. Reasonableness and relative simplicity of a design, along with broad application of the principle of multifunctionality of details caused high reliability of work and unpretentiousness of the Kalashnikov in any including in the most difficult, conditions, having got it deserved glory. The words told commanders of airborne forces the general - the colonel Georgy Shpak to the outstanding armorer Mikhail Kalashnikov became the most emotional assessment to the weapon from easily soiled joint stock company: “ Mikhail Timofeyevich, I in fighting conditions with your automatic machine slept, as with the wife “.

By the end of the XX century in fifty years of production in the world not less than 100 million Kalashnikovs of all options were manufactured. Thanks to reliability and high fighting qualities, automatic machines of Joint stock company / AKM / joint stock company - 74 consist on arms at the turn of the century or are used by armed forces and the militarized formations in ninety eight states of the world.

Now gentleman of the award “ For merits before the Fatherland “ the second degree the general - the lieutenant Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov makes use of the knowledge and an extensive experience for advance of the Russian weapon on the foreign markets.