What Kalashnikovs in the world are famous for? History of an origin of joint stock company. Part 1B 1947 the eighth wonder of the world - the automatic machine of a design of Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov was born. The name of this outstanding armorer is widely known not only in our country, but also abroad as practically the automatic machine created by it from easily soiled joint stock company took part in all wars and the military conflicts of the second half of the twentieth century. Effective and reliable, the Kalashnikov became one of symbols of our era. Mikhail Kalashnikov was born
on November 10, 1919 in the village Kurya of Altai Krai, in a large country family. After the termination of high school the country fellow goes to work as the pupil in railway depot of station Matay Turkestansko - the Siberian railroad, and works as the technical secretary in a political department of Turksib in Alma later - to Atya. In 1938 Kalashnikov is called in ranks of RKKA, and he, after leaving school of mechanics - drivers of tanks, serves in the Kiev special military district. Already during this period the young tankman showed inclinations of the inquisitive and sharp-witted inventor. He developed the inertial counter of the accounting of shots from a tank gun, special device to the gun TT for firing from the tank tower hatch, designed the counter of motor potential of the tank engine on which received copyright certificates. Command paid attention to the young sergeant - the rationalizer. Kalashnikov was invited to Kiev, in a district staff where the commander of KOVO general G. Zhukov handed to the talented inventor nominal hours. In June, 1941 Mikhail was sent to Leningrad for introduction of the counter of motor potential in production.
From the beginning of the Great Patriotic War Kalashnikov took part in fights with German - fascist aggressors. In October it, being a commander of the average tank T - 34, in bloody fight near Bryansk it was seriously injured and contused. For the shown courage and courage the commander of tank crew sergeant Mikhail Kalashnikov was awarded the order by the first the Red Star.
The idea of creation of the submachine gun was born at Kalashnikov when it was in hospital on treatment. He did not linger, in library studied several books of our armorers Fedorov, Filatov and Blagonravov on the weapon device. Having received six-months holiday on wound, Mikhail Timofeyevich arrived to Matay`s station, and in mechanical masterful depots where worked to army, by means of companions carried out conceived. Kalashnikov went with the ready model in Alma - Atu. The secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan Kayshingulov sent it to the Moscow aviation institute which was in Alma - to Atya in evacuation. Specialists of faculty strelkovo - gun arms helped Kalashnikov to bring a prototype to a complete look. After test by firing the weapon was sent to Samarkand where also in evacuation there was an Artillery academy of Dzerzhinsky. However the conclusion from academy became for the beginning designer a tub of cold water: “... Having considered the description and having made shooting by service cartridges of the submachine gun presented on a response (comrade`s author. Kalashnikov), the commission considers that this sample has no advantages over the automatic machines consisting on arms. For this reason to recommend the submachine gun for further completion it is inexpedient “. Together with this response addressed to Kalashnikov the letter from one of founders of domestic school of the automatic weapon the general - the lieutenant A. Blagonravov in whom the talent and work of the inventor were highly appreciated at the same time came: “ The exclusive ingenuity, big energy and work enclosed in business originality of the solution of a number of technical questions force to watch at Kalashnikov as on talented the self-educated person, it is desirable for them to give technical education. Undoubtedly, from it the good designer " can turn out;.
Soon according to the petition of department of invention of Narkomat of defense Alma - an atinsky regional military registration and enlistment office directs the sergeant Kalashnikov for passing sluzhbyv design office Scientifically - the research ground of shooting arms of the Head artillery department of RKKA (NIPSVO). Kalashnikov met such coryphaeuses of weapon business as V. Degtyarev, S. Simonov, G. Shpagin, became with the young designer A. Sudayev very intimate. Here he began to join professional design activity. With original enthusiasm Mikhail Timofeyevich at a new position worked. Through his hands there passed the huge number of samples of automatic small arms. Kalashnikov received several copyright certificates on inventions for short term.
The Management of Shooting Arms (MSA) of GAU in 1946 announced a competition on design of the automatic machine under a cartridge obr. 1943. The young designer sergeant Mikhail Kalashnikov also participated in this competition. Subsequently he remembered: “ The Competition was closed. Those who participated in it submitted all documentation on a sample under assumed names... Under the terms of a competition it was required to present not only drawings of general views, calculations on locking knot durability, to define rate of firing and to give some other important characteristics, but also to make detailed study of the " project;. Kalashnikov sent the outline sketch of the automatic machine under the code “ MIHTIM “ that was reduction on the first three letters of his name and a middle name. Subsequently this weapon became known under an index of joint stock company (Kalashnikov).
Getting to work on the new project, Kalashnikov set a goal: using already famous solutions of these or those knots and details, to find the optimal solution of a task. A trial and error method the final version of the new automatic machine appeared. In work on the project of the automatic machine to the young armorer big help was given by officers of the ground: V. Lyuty, D. Bitayev, E. Slutsky, A. Malimon, B. Kanel. Since the beginning of 1947 of work on completion of the automatic machine Kalashnikov had to transfer to Kovrov. The staff of department of the chief designer of Kovrov plant No. 2 HKB of the USSR together with Kalashnikov was accepted for good reason.
In the automatic machine Mikhail Timofeyevich used the principles which are already embodied earlier in many samples and schemes of the device of mechanisms of automatic small arms. It creatively approached design of many details of the automatic machine, having taken as a basis the layout scheme and many knots, including the locking mechanism, from the skilled autoloading carbine developed in 1944. Then the original solution of knot of the locking which became subsequently a company card of all weapon of " family was born; kalashnikovy “: locking of the channel of a trunk was made by two fighting ledges of the lock turning around the longitudinal axis.
It should be noted a merit of the young designer who found in the schemes and knots which were already used earlier the hidden reserves due to entering into them new, sometimes, apparently, absolutely minor changes. The automatic machine had very successful switch of a type of fire (which is at the same time and a safety lock), executed in the form of a uniform rotary detail. Kalashnikov with pride remembered it: “ Very much rejoiced that it was succeeded to solve a problem of the translator of fire. It began to carry out several functions now: provided switching of fire with single on automatic and on a safety lock, at the same time closed a groove for the perezaryazhaniye handle, thereby not only excepting a possibility of raising of a lock, but also protecting a receiver from hit in dust and " dirt;.
After long completion and carrying out army tests, in 1949 the Kalashnikov was taken advantage of the Soviet army in two options: “ 7,62 - mm " Kalashnikov; Joint stock company (with a wooden butt) and AKS (with the developing metal butt). The Kalashnikov was the materialized product of achievements of all school of domestic designing of automatic small arms. At last after many years of searches the Soviet soldier received a sample of the infantry automatic weapon really successful in every respect to which the oldest Russian armorer F. Tokarev gave quite deserved assessment: “ In troops the automatic machine of joint stock company of system of the talented designer - a nugget M. T. Kalashnikova was generally recognized. This sample differs in safety in operation, high accuracy and accuracy of firing, rather small weight “. This automatic machine was fated more than for half-centuries to take the leading place among the best systems of the individual automatic weapon of infantry.
To be continued