What historians see the Russian emperor Alexander I?“ Master weak and crafty “ - so called Alexander I A. S. Pushkin. And what it is seen by modern historians?
“ In policy it is possible will unite even with the devil, but only if you are sure that you will spend the devil, but not the devil you “ - Karl Marx. From Sergey Nechayev`s book “ The Most mysterious emperor of Russia “.
Review of Sergey Nechayev`s book “ The Most mysterious emperor of Russia “.
Alexander I rodilsya12 December, 1777. Alexander in honor of Saint Alexander Nevsky was called - is precisely confirmed by historians (Nechayev).
Since the childhood it was as if between the devil and the deep sea - between the empress Catherine II (grandmother) and between future emperor Paul I (father). Besides Alexander, Pavel and Maria Fyodorovna had 9 more children, the majority from whom the girl. Sons - Alexander, Konstantin and Nikolay. According to historians Nicolae Pavel worshipped younger.
Between the father and the son were the intense relations, but the grandmother adored the grandson and even wrote him textbooks and plays.
Alexander became deaf on the left ear from - for the fact that he spent much time in barracks as the father asked it - served in a semyonovsky regiment.
Is known Borovikovsky Vladimir Lucic`s portrait, “ Alexander I “
From the father he inherited love to military parades. Lagarp, the Frenchman by origin who imparted to the pupil high republican views which as historians write, very much dispersed from the Russian reality was a favourite teacher of Alexander.
Alexander grew. The grandmother hurried to marry him to the princess Louise Badenskaya who in Orthodoxy received a name of Elizabeth Alekseevna. They say that from Natalia Naryshkina Alexander had an illegitimate daughter Sofya who died in 1824 of a long illness. By hearsay, to historical jokes, etc. Elizabeth Alekseevna throughout all life had hobbies. In the beginning “ Platonic hobby “ Alexander Pavlovich`s friend, Adam Chartoryysky, about which at historians very inconsistent opinion, then a certain captain Alexey Okhotnikov - more serious, “ physical “ hobby. But there are rumors that in Okhotnikov`s death the brother Alexandra Constantine is guilty. Adam Chartoryysky was twice sent by the emperor Pavel out of borders of Russia - to Italy to hold him far away from the spouse of the emperor Elizabeth.
Paul I was killed by conspirators in March, 1801. They say that all were let into conspiracy against Pavel, including his spouse Maria Fyodorovna. Plot prepared with the assistance of the English envoy, the count … and the Russian adventurer Olga Zherebtsova who helped conspirators.
“ Stop sobbing, go to reign “ - the count Pyotr Alekseevich von der Palen so told Alexander.
Most of conspirators were banished. In 1801 Alexander from group of friends opens “ Secret committee “ which soon broke up, but managed to put into practice “ the decree on free plowmen in 1803 “.
“ From 1803 to 1824 Auber - the prosecutor executed a position the prince A. N. Golitsyn who was since 1816 as well the minister of national education “ (Wikipedia).
“ On September 8, 1802 Manifesto “ About establishment of the ministries “ ministerial reform was begun - 8 ministries replacing the Petrovsky boards liquidated by Catherine II and restored by Paul I " were claimed;. (Wikipedia).
“ On July 12, 1810 there was a manifesto " prepared by M. M. Speransky; About division of public affairs into special managements “ on June 25, 1811 - “ General establishment of the ministries “. - “ Wikipedia “.
Military failure near Austerlits to much taught Alexander, and, first of all, to trust the commander-in-chief, the count Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov who died in 1813 after a victory of Russians in Patriotic war of 1812. After Kutuzov command was assumed by P.Ch. Wittgenstein.
Patriotic war very hard was given 1812 to the tsar and the Russian people. Historians unanimously write that during this military company Alexander came to the Bible.
K Napoleon was prostrate 1813, and after the Vienna congress (1814) in Europe the world set in.
From other military campaigns. In 1809 Alexander I annexed Finland to Russia. “ In 1809 Speransky was made in privy councilors “.
After Patriotic war of 1812 in Alexander developed tendency to mysticism. One of its most “ strange “ but in too time of the most interesting acquaintances of the period of 1815 - with baroness Varvara Julia von Kruedener, the woman of a mystical warehouse who liked to talk big-time politics.
But as historians write, Alexander pretended that he listens to it, but at the same time conducted policy independently. Baroness von Kruedener on a slope of the years went with girlfriends to the Crimea where founded the settlement in which died.
B 1819 Alexander stopped persecutions on the devotee Maria Sherstyukova who located in the Voronezh Belogorie. “ The Tsar disposed to give her necessary help in the device of the cave temple which creation was complete in 1819. In gratitude to the emperor, Maria Sherstyukova expressed desire that the temple was consecrated in honor of St. most Orthodox book of Alexander Nevsky, the heavenly patron of the emperor “.
Source: ru/articles/20837. html
Died Maria Sherstyukova in 1822, at the age of 82 years.
“ The most known of Maria`s followers - Ivan Tishchenko, Andrey Nikolaevich Vasilchenko (future monk Anthony), blessed Jacob a bezmolvnik “.
Source: ru/articles/20837. html
B we with mother and the aunt Luda went 2014 to Belogorie, and visited a cell of the repentant sinner Maria Sherstyukova (a pilgrim trip); in that temple which she devoted to Alexander I.
Also then were popular Masonic lodges. However, before revolution threat, Alexander in 1822 issued the decree on a ban of Masonic lodges which, naturally, were connected with the closed, revolutionary societies of Decembrists, the majority of which were masons. Approximately at this time there was also a falling of several imperial favourites of the reformer Mikhail Speransky; the prince Golitsyn (the former head of Bible society), and a final eminence of the count Alexey Arakcheev about which many wrote that it was the cruel man.
Extreme measures on strengthening of the central power forced to go Alexander to the organization of military settlements (1816). “ In 1818 Alexander I charged to the admiral Mordvinov, counts Arakcheev and Guryev (1751 - 1825) to develop projects of cancellation of a serfdom “ (Wikipedia). Count Guryev. “ A. D. Guryev and N. D. Guryev`s Father, Karl Nesselrode`s father-in-law “ (Wikipedia). He was married to the countess Praskoviya Nikolaevna Saltykova. It is known as the conductor of taxes, monopolies. This is that author well-known “ Guryev " porridge;. Here is how Wikipedia writes about it: “ Guryev not without reason traveled abroad: it improved itself(himself) as regards gastronomic there. It something like that had really a genius inventive, and, apparently, there are pastes, there are cutlets which bear his name. It gave lunches to the notable new family, and only it one; his house began to be read one of the best, and it was among the first patricians of Petropol “. Children: Maria, Alexander, Nikolay, Elena.
B too time, in 1818 to the vicinities - Liflyandiya, to Estlyandiya and so on were given the main standards of the Constitution and political freedoms.
At Alexander I N. M. Karamzin published the book “ History of the state Russian “.
… In 1824 there was a severe flood in St. Petersburg. The same year the beloved daughter of the emperor - Sofya died. The sovereign very much on it grieved. In 1824 - 25 the tsar undertook big travel across Russia. Visited the Crimea and other Russian lands. In October, 1825 Alexander I got sick, and in November, 1825 died.
However in several years after his death in the Perm province appeared the aged man Fyodor Kuzmich, as like as two peas similar to the late emperor. After that rumors spread that the emperor did not die in 1825. The aged man Fyodor Kuzmich died in 1864, having endured Adam Chartoryysky for 3 years (died in 1861). Whether there was it the emperor Alexander or not, it is unknown. I can tell that Sergey Yuryevich Nechayev`s book “ The Most mysterious emperor of Russia “ interesting, is not deprived of sense, and written in a classical format - as I got used to read about Alexander I. But despite it the identity of the emperor is revealed nevertheless by incompleteness.
With reference to historians: Balyazin`s
, Klyuchevsky and some other; with huge base of memoirs data.
24. 10. 2014 11:16:25