How there was Wikipedia?Wikipedia are the unique project of the Internet. The website, the third in popularity, exists at the expense of donations and is created on a volunteer basis. History of emergence of the most popular the Internet - encyclopedias is difficult and interesting.
Libraries - predecessors of the Internet. Many of founders of worldwide network thought that they create world library filled with various texts. And many with enthusiasm undertook filling of this enormous library. Among other things there were electronic copies of paper encyclopedias.
Almost at once it turned out that similar “ the Internet - the " editions; encyclopedic reference books are inconvenient in use. Seldom who reads encyclopedias as the hero of the book of Lev Kassil “ Conduit and Shvambraniya “ commissioner Chubarkov. That is from the first article of the first volume to the last article of the last volume. Dolgonko should read and so not to gather knowledge! Until you read up to the end, you will forget everything. The encyclopedia should be opened only in the right place, on the necessary article.
Ric Gates (Rick Gates) was the first person who suggested to create the Internet - the encyclopedia . There was it even before emergence of the World wide web. If somebody remembers / knows, in those days the place of Facebook, twitter and other social networks was occupied by a network of Yuznet (Usenet) in which users crowded together on interests in special groups. These groups in English were called newsgroup, and were translated into Russian as “ " conference;. There were conferences serious, and were entertaining. In one of such conferences Ric Gates held game - competition, devoted to search on the Internet.
In a competition Ric Gates offered 10 questions of different complexity. The answer to a question should have been given, using only Internet resources. Now it seems self-evident. But then to make it it was difficult. There were neither browsers, nor search servers yet. Access to information on the Internet was provided by means of such tools as FTP, Archie, and Gopher. I am afraid that many of present experts of the Internet know nothing about these tools.
In October, 1993 Ric Gates suggested Internet users to begin with joint efforts creation of the encyclopedia of the Internet. The project received the name Interpedia . R. Gates wrote several trial articles for the project. But further intentions business did not move.
After epoch-making (I will not be afraid of this word!) inventions of Tim Berners Li who realized idea “ World wide web “ it became clear how it has to be technically constructed the Internet - the encyclopedia. It has to be the website which each page will contain the text of one dictionary entry. Thanking the Internet - to references this dictionary entry will be connected with other articles placed on other pages. Thus, it would be possible to read the Internet - the encyclopedia, starting with any page, using search engines for its stay or having found the required dictionary entry through contents of the encyclopedia.
In 1994 the American programmer Howard Cunningham (Howard G. Cunningham) offered technology for a fast exchange of ideas and collective drawing up knowledge bases. This program system had to make if necessary “ kickback “ in one of the previous states. Development was called “ Wiki “. They say that in Hawaiian the word " so sounds; quickly “.
It would seem, everything was ready to start of the well-known Wikipedia. Here not! To Wikipedia some time (from March, 2000 to September, 2003) existed of Nupedia . Project managers, Larry Senger (Larry Sanger) and Jimmy Wales (Jimmy Donal Wales) , assumed that the encyclopedia will be formed scientists and experts on a voluntary basis (gratuitously, that is for nothing as the burro of News agency - News agency spoke). Articles before the publication had to pass an expert assessment with obligatory confirmation of reliability.
Main thing “ " tractor; in this work there was Larry Senger, and Jimmy Wales financed the project. The website Bomis created in 1996 was a source of financing. Bomis represented the Internet - a portal with the searcher, like Yahoo! However this portal was aimed at man`s audience therefore on it the sections devoted to favourite man`s toys were main: to cars and girls. The search Bomis server was “ it is ground “ on search in the Network of photos with an exposed flesh, and the former pornstar of Silvius Saynt advertized it. On a portal there was enough place for advertizing, and this advertizing yielded the quite good revenue allowing to finance “ non-core “ project.
L. Senger the first paid attention to a cursor “ Wiki “ which had to accelerate discussion and verification of articles for Nupediya. The website Wikipedia was created by on January 15, 2001 as auxiliary. Nobody assumed its great future.
From - for too strict approach to contents of the articles Nupedia it was impractical. For three with small years only 24 scientific articles were published only in English.
Project managers decided to change the concept. They as if knew about Howard Cunningham`s phrase: “ The Best way to receive the correct answer on the Internet is not to ask a question, and to place the false answer “ . The website Nupedia was closed, and the website Wikipedia turned into a portal on which any of users could offer article of any subject.
Simplification of editorial policy exerted the impact on the speed of development of the project. In February, 2001 on the website the first thousand articles appeared. In half a year of articles there were already 10 thousand. On September 20, 2001 on “ Wikipedia “ for the first time the serious press paid attention. " newspaper; The New York Times “ wrote article about unusual experiment.
In new Wikipedia national sections appeared. The section of Wikipedia in Russian was open on May 11, 2001. The first article for this section was written on May 24. It was called (who would doubt!) “ Russia “ and originally consisted of one phrase: “ Russia - the great country “. At the end of September of the same year on the main page of the Russian Wikipedia the phrase " appeared; Russia - the homeland of elephants (big-eared, the increased passability - see a mammoth) “. The phrase hung on the page more than a year.
Now on a portal there are about ten international sections, the number of articles in which exceeds 1 million.
At the very beginning of existence of Wikipedia several its fundamental principles were defined. Among them: the neutral point of view at writing articles and substantiality of statements which assumes references on external the Internet - sources.
Also project problems were defined. Repeated cases of vandalism were noted (like the above-stated phrase about Russia - the homeland of elephants). It was necessary to define strictly what is possible and what cannot be posted on the website. Naturally, was charges of inaccuracy and of mistakes very much. On these charges (often, snobbish) there was one answer: you see a mistake - correct.
Originally Jimmy Wales planned to make Wikipedia profitable. In a year of existence, at the beginning of 2002, the project became too expensive. The Bomis portal could not finance more it. As a result of Larry Senger the project left.
To make a portal profitable, Wales tried to begin to show on it advertizing. But the community which was created the Internet around - encyclopedias, sharply opposed its commercialization. Then the decision to begin collecting donations was made. In 2003 there was a noncommercial fund Wikimedia Foundation. Under management of this fund Wikipedia and all projects which arose around it passed.
After that the encyclopedia began to develop steadily and quickly. Wikipedia became the project of the Internet, the third in popularity. At the same time the most part of work in the Internet - encyclopedias is still made by volunteers on the noncommercial beginnings. Wikipedia is surprising confirmation that altruism can become a serious driving force. Let`s notice in brackets: altruism, correctly organized.