When there were kapron stockings?Nylon are one of the first artificial fibers which was invented at the beginning of 1930 - x years. There were most popular products from this fiber 75 years ago - transparent and strong women`s stockings. At this prosaic subject the most interesting history.
At the time of corsets and crinolines of men fascinated the female legs which were occasionally appearing from - under long dresses. The female leg was a bait and a gift to the passionate lover. And ladies perfectly knew it.
Women in general remarkably understand in all that can them more attractive decorate and make. Also take for a ride to men twice. At first - “ get it “ and then - “ look how to me it goes “. Driving these the stronger sex into frenzy.
After World War I female legs stopped being object of fetishism as women ceased to hide them. Skirts were economically truncated, and stockings became indispensable female attribute. And attribute very important. Now, when stockings were open for the whole world, they were obliged to be very qualitative and surely beautiful.
The best and most beautiful stockings turned out from silk. But silk is expensive. Therefore damages of stockings by women were perceived as accident. As if in female life without that few awful accidents and just troubles! On the other hand, and men could deliberate not too over a gift for the woman, the relations with whom already developed. Pair of silk stockings were not too expensive payment for favor of the girlfriend and her joyful mood.
I will not tell that the American chemical firm “ Dupont “ (DuPont) thought of how to please women. Just she thought of it least of all. And here this firm strenuously worked on creation of new polymeric materials at the end of 1920 - x years.
These works were headed by the talented chemist Wallace Karozers (Wallace Hume Carothers) (1896-1937) . Karozers proved to be as the excellent chemist even before the end of study at university. On a last year he performed work of the teacher and conducted studies at undergraduates. His academic career quite was successful. In 1924 Karozers received a doctor`s degree at Illinoyssky university. It had a good reserve of scientific works in the field of organic chemistry and deserved recognition from colleagues. Having worked two years at Illinoyssky university, in 1926 the scientist moves to Harvard.
Work of the university researcher suited Karozers also because he had a heavy character, depressive. He recognized that many usual things, for example, forming of the normal human relations or the solution of daily household problems, trouble it. Karozers considered it as result of own fear, everyday dullness and total absence of feelings. Of course, with such character, in his opinion, it was better for one to work in university laboratory or, as a last resort, with several assistants. Therefore when U. Karozers received the invitation to work in new research laboratory of the " company; Dupont “ it, without deliberating, refused. He was invited to a position of the head of office of organic chemistry. The whole collective which should be directed. It will not be able!
However " company; Dupont “ it was persistent. Offered Karozers the salary twice exceeding him a professorial rate in Harvard. And Karozers agreed. In the " company; Dupont “ it began to work on February 6, 1928. And in April, 1930 in the laboratory headed by it synthesized artificial isoprene rubber. It was new “ obuvka “ for millions of automobile wheels. The same year scientists synthesized the first rayon - polyester.
In 1934 At. Karozers began in the laboratory preparation for synthesis of a new class of polymers - polyamides. On February 28, 1935 Karozers synthesized the first polyamide. Substance which called nylon subsequently had quite high temperature of melting. Technologists thought up to receive from thread nylon, pressing through it in a hot state through thin openings, dies. Nylon threads were ideal on durability. One thin thread maintained loadings in many kilograms. The fabric made of nylon threads was strong, thin and waterproof. It was ideal replacement to silk.
The first commercial product made of nylon was offered buyers in 1938. On counters of shops toothbrushes with a nylon bristle appeared. Following goods, which " firm; Dupont “ presented to general public, there were nylon stockings. The pilot batch of stockings from nylon went on sale On October 24, 1939 years in the city of Wilmington where there was a chemical laboratory of the " company; Dupont “. Therefore on October 24 consider birthday nylon Chulkov. This year it executes 75 years!
It became at once clear that these goods will have success. Women estimated all advantages of a novelty. New stockings in comparison with stockings from silk looked more beautiful, though were twice more expensive. Besides in all respects nylon stockings were better. They were stronger, more elastic, did not get wet and the moth did not eat them.
After technologists marketing specialists got into gear. The decision to begin broad sale of new goods on all east coast of the USA in one day, on May 15, 1940 was made. This day broke all records of sales. In one day the American women bought 5 million pairs of stockings. Many ladies so could not wait to test a novelty on themselves that they changed clothes of stockings directly on the street, in the face of passersby. Serious test for the woman in the USA, being then the country extraordinary conservative. Means, really, nylon stockings were worth it!
U. Karozers did not live till these happy days. He did not even manage to take out the patent for the new polymer made by it. Its mental state constantly worsened, and on April 29, 1937 he committed suicide. Went to Philadelphia, had the room in hotel and drank potassium cyanide, having dissolved it in lemon juice. As the good chemist, he knew that cyanide in acidic environment affects a human body quicker. In seven months his daughter whom called Jane was born.
About why nylon so is called, there are no exact data. It is authentically known only that the termination of this word is taken from the English word “ cotton “ (“ " cotton;) as well as in other fiber which called kapron. And what such nyl? On one of versions, it is an abbreviation of two cities, New - York and London.
In 1939 at the World Fair nylon also was presented to New - York among other achievements of the industry of the USA in the American pavilion. It is presented rather unusually. The thin nylon thread on which the weighty weight was fixed went down from a ceiling. Thereby one of advertizing slogans of nylon stockings was illustrated: “ Are strong as steel, are thin as a spider line “. But most of all audience was shaken by an entrance to the pavilion where the presentation of new artificial fiber was held. Visitors passed near the twelve-meter female legs resting against a ceiling of the hall which imitated a petticoat. Legs were dressed in nylon stockings. In the pavilion presented to women pair of nylon stockings. Carry, inventing, try!
Nylon was fine substitute of silk during World War II. Japan with which Americans were at war was the main supplier of silk to the United States. Did parachutes, soldier`s clothes and ammunition of a nylon cloth.
Production nylon Chulkov in the years of war almost stopped. Americans received cards by which they could buy only six pairs of nylon stockings a year. Stockings became deficiency. Respectively, the prices increased. Before war nylon stockings were on sale on one and a half dollars for couple. During war their cost on “ black market “ increased up to ten dollars.
To keep scarce stockings longer, women ceased to wear them in the summer. Instead of stockings smart beauties covered a leg light-brown paint. Such paint was let out by the " company; Max Faktor “. And in many beauty shops of a leg painted “ under the " stockings; also did it very probably. And the obsolete nylon stockings the American women - patriots handed over for secondary processing.
To Europe nylon stockings were brought at the end of World War II by the American soldiers. Couple nylon Chulkov was considered as a good payment to the European women for caress and hospitality.
After World War II mass production nylon Chulkov in the USA was resumed. Also the range extended. There were transparent nylon stockings and stockings without back seam.
After Americans the new chemical weapons of mass destruction of men were mastered also by the European women. Even in the USSR which was steadily lagging behind development of any western technical novelties for about twenty years, thin and strong women`s stockings from kapron, the synthetic fiber similar to nylon appeared in the middle of 1950 - x years. Practical Soviet women right there fell in love with these convenient and beautiful products which obviously provoked to show female legs in all their dukhozakhvatyvayushchy beauty. And already to the middle of 1960 - x the years which are a match for the Soviet planes and rockets, hems of skirts of the Soviet women of fashion flew up on unknown height. And here from brotherly Czechoslovakia stockings - breeches which on - Czech were called " appeared in time; " panty hoses; and who right there in Russian began to call laskatelno - “ " tights;. However, it - already another story altogether