Than the hawthorn is useful?the Hawthorn is widespread in our country as a fruit, medicinal and ornamental plant. It differs in plentiful and annual productivity, high flavoring and useful qualities of fruits, different terms of maturing, winter hardiness and drought resistance that allows to part it in various is soil - climatic zones. Its name came from the word “ boyar “ (by analogy with bright seigniorial dresses), and in some areas of the country he is called boyaryshnya, a boyarka or the boyar - a tree - from - for magnificent belopenny blossoming and very bright red fruits.
In fruits of a hawthorn from 4 to 11 percent of sugars, generally fructose, a small amount of glucose and sucrose. From organic acids apple prevails. There is also insignificant quantity amber and lemon.
It is more pectinaceous substances in fruits of a hawthorn, than in fruits of a cherry plum and a lemon, nearly 1,5%. The quantity tannic and dyes reaches 1,8%. Fruits contain a lot of ascorbic acid and vitamin P. Some types of a hawthorn on the content of carotene do not concede to carrots and a dogrose. Seeds of a hawthorn contain also and fat, flowers are rich with essential oil - nearly 1,5%. Besides, in fruits there are salts of calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and also such vitamins as tiamin, Riboflavinum, is well-cared.
Large-fruited views and forms of the cultivated hawthorn with a good ratio of acids and sugars differ high food and tastes and are used fresh. Fruits after frosts lose tannins and become more sweet and less tart. Availability of organic acids impacts them a peculiar pleasant relish. They are suitable for different types of processing. Make jam, jam, jelly, a fruit candy, compotes of them. Very tasty pies with a stuffing from a hawthorn turn out. In a fried look fruits apply as a tea substitute. Mature fruits of a hawthorn can be dried up in an oven and to use during the winter period for various culinary products. As a herb the hawthorn was recognized at the end of the nineteenth century. The fruits, leaves and flowers of a hawthorn containing bioactive agents use at production of medicine. The hawthorn finds broad application in decorative gardening, during creation of green hedges. Its plants are convenient for a hairstyle and formation.
The hawthorn as an apple-tree and a pear, belongs to family of rozanny. This sort has up to 1250 types from which the majority is widespread in Eastern States to the USA and the southern Canada. In our country about 30 types grow. From them the majority - in culture. In a wild look and in culture the hawthorn is widespread in the European part, in the southern regions of Russia and in the Caucasus. It grows odinochno or groups on plains, on coast of the rivers, in thickets of bushes. The hawthorn grows in the form of a bush or trees up to the height of 10 meters and more, with dense roundish krone. Branches of its many types have pazushny prickles. Inflorescences at the majority of types of a hawthorn shchitkovidny, are more rare - umbrella-shaped. A flower nimbus white or pink, from 5 petals. Stamens often with yellow, pink or purpurno - the painted motes well noticeable against white petals are also given to a bush by very beautiful look during blossoming. Among diverse types of a hawthorn are available also terry with red or white flowers. In Moscow area the hawthorn blossoms, as a rule, from the second half of May and to the first half of June, usually right after blooming of leaves. Blossoming duration depending on weather conditions can be 10, and even 20 days. Usually flowers do not get under spring frosts, and from - for it the harvest of berries happens stable. At views with terry flowers blossoming the longest. The hawthorn belongs to group of self-fertile plants, however cross-pollination of different types and forms leads to more plentiful infructescence. The plant is pollinated by bees, but also both flies and bugs.
Depending on a type of a hawthorn, fruits ripen from August to September, and even October. Fructification plentiful and annual. From one plant it is possible to collect from 4 to 20 kilograms of fruits. Diameter of fruits quite large - to 3 centimeters. Their form, most often, yablokoobrazny. Ripe fruits have various coloring - from orange to red and from brown to black with various shades. Pulp their dry mealy or juicy. On paint - from green to red. In fruits meets from 1 to 5 stones. The hawthorn differs in winter hardiness, besides, it well transfers a drought. This is the serious long-liver - the age reaches him 200, and even 300 years. With age its winter hardiness only increases. The hawthorn is very photophilous. In the shaded places its growth and productivity will be considerably reduced. The hawthorn is made multiple copies seeds, layers, root offsprings, shanks and an inoculation. Most the seed way of reproduction was widely adopted. Hawthorn seeds with firm covers therefore sprout slowly and not at the same time. For acceleration of germination of seeds, they are recommended to wash out in flowing water. At crops of the seeds received from immature fruits, viability increases by 30 - 40%, in comparison with seeds of the ripened fruits. The daily endurance of immature seeds in 1% nitrate of potassium leads to amicable shoots. Garden large-fruited forms of a hawthorn make multiple copies an inoculation that ensures safety of its valuable signs. As a stock apply one or its biannual winter-hardy forms.
The agrotechnology of cultivation of a hawthorn is rather simple. It grows on any soils, including the drained peat bogs. For its landing prepare holes of 70 cm in the diameter and 60 cm in depth. At laying of green green hedges previously dig trenches of the same sizes, and then plant a plant at distance to 1 meter from each other. Care of plantings of a hawthorn same, as well as behind other plodovo - berry plants. The hawthorn near fruit breeds, especially with an apple-tree and a pear as they are surprised the same diseases is not recommended to sit down. And enemies at it is an and green apple plant louse, a boyaryshnikovy pochkovy tick, a red fruit tick, boyaryshnikovy a leaf much - a flea beetle, the winter geometrid, an annulate silkworm, a blackvein, the browntail, an apple strelchatka, boyaryshnikovy and cherry sawyers. It is damaged by them sometimes quite seriously. It is a lot of at a hawthorn and diseases: mealy dew, rust, fillostikoz, septorioz, common people, central decay of a trunk and others. Measures of fight against all of them standard, standard at gardeners.