Let`s make phototravel across the Russian Lapland? Lovozyorsky diaries.it is far - far in the north, among the cold tundra of the Kola Peninsula where the sun does not set for the horizon in the summer, and in the winter for weeks hides behind rocky slopes, the ancient massif with the beautiful unusual name - the Lovozyorsky tundra is located. It is the wild and severe land shrouded in mysterious myths and legends.
July this year was given very hot. Asphalt melted, conditioners puffed, and residents of megalopolises after work amicably occupied in the evenings various reservoirs in a radius of the next hundred kilometers, filling air with aromas of a shish kebab and in few days turning sandy beaches into the selected stinking dumps. Flying into a rage together with all from an abnormal heat, I remembered hot summer of 2010 whether guessing the smoke from the peat bogs which are traditionally burning near Moscow will reach this time St. Petersburg, or this time will carry by. Sad news, meanwhile, came from capital suburbs that to them the smoke already came. And here, in one of the last July nights unexpected, but very simple thought was born: it is necessary to bring down urgently on the North - to be cooled a little!
Deliberating over where all - to go - to the North of Sweden or to the North of Finland, I arrived at idea that will be much more patriotic once again to sweep on the native land. Exactly three days later the train, jumping up on old joints between rails, carried away me and two more of my colleagues to Murmansk region. Trees behind a window became below, and temperature column all did not want to fall in any way. 24 hours and 42 minutes later we went out of the train to the station of Olenegorsk, from where, without hesitating minutes, went to a taxi to the village Lovozero. The thermometer showed 28 degrees above zero. Here to you and Polar region...
Lovozero - the ancient Lappish village located near coast of the Lake Lovozero. Here such here local tautological pun. The village Lovozero (on - Lappish - Luyavvr - siyyt, “ siyyt “ - a territorial community) - the center of cultural life of Sami in Russia. There is quite interesting museum devoted to this small northern nationality. The exposition was formed at the beginning of 1960 - x years on the basis of local high school. Today the museum occupies the certain building. For excursion regardless of a number of people tear up 700 rubles.
Sami - the nationality living on extreme North - the West of Europe, in the territory of modern Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Scientists consider that Sami - the relict of very ancient Caucasian population which kept unique anthropological type. The Lappish language has the general roots with the Finnish, Estonian and Hungarian languages and includes 10 various dialects.
The self-name of aboriginals of the Kola Peninsula did not remain. The ethnonyms applied today - “ Sami “ and “ falls “ (what in fact - same) - are derivatives from languages of inhabitants of the neighboring territories. It is considered that the word “ Sami “ comes from the Baltic languages (Latvian and Lithuanian), and “ falls “ - from Danish. In Russia an ethnonym “ Sami “ it was officially approved only in 1930 - x years, and before during long time more common was “ fall “.
One of the main riddles - an origin of Sami. In this respect still there is no uniform version. One of the most widespread theories: Sami are the Finn`s descendants - the waste which was gradually getting into East Karelia and the Southern Finland since IV millennium B.C. - right after retreat of an ice cover upon completion of the last Ice Age. Over time Sami migrated further and further on the North, escaping from the Finnish and Karelian colonization and probably from taxation by a tribute and absorbing in itself ethnic and language lines of various people which were found them on the way. After the migrating herds of wild reindeers ancestors of Sami gradually left to the coast of the Arctic Ocean.
At the same time as Sami did not create the independent state, history of their people is a component of history of other nations which formed the statehood with a current of centuries - Norwegians, Swedes, Finns and Russians.
On an entrance to the museum there is a stone with ancient petroglyphs delivered here in 1980 - x years from the deaf Kola tundra. In total ten similar stones were found. By today on the places there were only four. Where the others got to - a riddle.
Age of the stone which is in the museum - about 3500 years. Weight - 3 tons. On it about 60 images closely adjoining to each other are beaten out. The main part of images - people and deer. Sometimes elks meet. Most of women are represented with roundish stomachs, some - at the time of delivery. Man`s figures - less. There are married couples in which the extended hands of women are given at the heads of men. At one of couples on the heads strange images similar to horns of deer.
The separate attention is deserved by a birth scene an olenyonka at the woman. It is represented on the right bent mother`s leg, and the right hand the woman holds for a leg of a male of a deer. All these motives - are directly connected with the Lappish mythology: one of the major places in a pantheon of the Lappish deities in the ancient time was occupied by a deer - the werewolf Myandash whom Sami consider the ancestor. There is the Lappish saying: “ We are cervine people, and our ancestors were deer “.
to make out all these scenes, it is necessary to have not hefty imagination, of course.
The following exhibit - the model of a northern labyrinth. They still sometimes are called “ vavilonam “. Similar designs already met to me on my travel: for example, few years ago I saw the similar restored labyrinth on the island Shyokar, and few months ago I unexpectedly came across fake Babylon created by unknown mystifiers on Vottovaar.
Such geometrical figures representing concentric the laid-out stone circles with outer diameter from 10 to 15 meters in a significant amount meet in all territory of Northern Europe. The exact mission of these constructions is unknown.
There are two main versions.
It agrees the first, labyrinths carried kultovo - religious character and were used for various rituals or merrymakings.
The second version carries them to trade constructions: it is supposed that labyrinths were created in prilivno - a drain zone of the sea and served as a trap for fish during outflow. Anyway, labyrinths always settled down on the bank of the seas, and the central entrance, as a rule, was arranged from the party, opposite to the sea.
Of course there are also alternative theories, the truth their most part, in my opinion, does not maintain absolutely any scientific criticism and indicates only very rough imagination of the authors. For example, one researchers point to the fact that these labyrinths are very similar to a female bosom, so their mission - for the rituals connected with the different periods of human life. Others consider that vavilona are peculiar ancient tombs. The third prove that it is ancient cards of solar system. The fourth - that it is ancient cards of our galaxy. The fifth - that it is the ancient antennas providing communication with space. The sixth in all seriousness say that labyrinths are ancient beacons which can accumulate energy from space and due to it to generate the shining columns in a night-time. Truth, as usual, - somewhere nearby.
Before the beginning of the 20th century Sami usually lived churchyards. During the different periods on the Kola Peninsula their quantity varied from 8 to 21. Churchyards were the winter, located in the central part peninsulas and allowing to wait long winters, and summer - temporary, intended for a summer pasture of deer and other crafts.
The traditional winter Lappish dwelling - the vezha - represents timbered construction in the form of the truncated pyramid, about, 3 × 3 meters. From within a vezh usually became covered by cervine skins. In cent the stone center was arranged.
Other type of the Lappish dwelling - the kuvaksa representing a cone-shaped framework from several poles connected by tops on which the cover from cervine skins or from a canvas stretched. The fire got a job in the center of a kuvaksa. Such easy figurative dwellings were used by Sami during movements.
By the beginning of the XX century many Sami instead of traditional dwellings began to use the Russian log hut.
the Village Lovozero is known since the beginning of the 16th century. According to entries in the pistsovy book: “ The Churchyard Lovozero is above Lovozero, only 10 vezh, and people in them 16 people “.
Today it is the region of the rendered habitable lands. Further on many kilometers the wild tundra extends.
We leave the museum and we go further. The taxi driver is lucky us to the mouth of the river of Virma. Once here nowadays uninhabited village the Seven was located. Today - the small mooring where we are met by the boat.
By unique geophysical station, engaged in studying of a polar light in Russia, we leave to the lake. Our way lies to the Lappish family in the summer living in the middle of the tundra.
The lake Lovozero - a reservoir, the fourth in size, in Murmansk region. Sami call it Luyavvr: “ yavvr “ means “ lake “ and here what means “ lu “ - not really it is clear, it seems as something connected with a force.
Length of the lake is about 45 kilometers. The maximum depth - 35 meters, though the most part of the lake - a melkovodn: about 2 meters. Despite small depths, autumn a storm happen very serious - especially if carries with a north.
In August water level falls almost on meter. The boat constantly touches with the screw the huge boulders lying at the bottom.
At last, having almost reached the parking of Sami, we run aground. To the aid there arrives Sami Egorych. Egorych`s
spends the whole summer in the tundra - grazes deer from lovozersky collective farm yes catches fish. The wife lives together with it - watches economy.
Reindeer breeding - the traditional occupation of Sami playing very important role in their culture. For example, in the Lappish language there are more than 30 various terms meaning different age of deer, and these terms differ for males and females. Of course, today all not as earlier - in Soviet period traditional tenor of life of Sami was almost completely destroyed.
Hospitable owners give to drink to us tea. A teapot - authentic. Tea - packaged. An entertainment to tea - fresh moroshkovy jam and the most tasty smoked perch prepared according to the traditional Lappish recipe. Such fish is stored very long and though over time dries up, all - equally does not lose the tastes.
Sitting on cervine skins, we conduct slow conversation with owners. The view from my place opens absolutely fantastic. Around on many kilometers - the tundra. There is no mobile communication here, only satellite. Though quite recently - just several decades ago - the ordinary fire was the only means of communication.
For example, the typical visit of shop looked as follows. Egorych abandoned the wife by the boat to the road from where it by bicycle went to Lovozero several kilometers behind products. Having returned back, it kindled a fire. Having seen a smoke, Egorych came up by the boat to take away it from the road.
Once, having seen in the designated time in the distance a smoke, Egorych once again floated for the wife. Comes, and there - the surprised fishermen who decided to fry fresh-caught fish on a fire sit. Communication also then was not really stable.
By the way, it is considered that the name the tundra originates in the Lappish language and designates “ the mountain without the wood “. As it will sound on - Lappish I do not know, but in Finnish there is very similar word - “ tunturi “.
Having said goodbye to hospitable owners and having ensured a stock of company Lappish smoked fish for several weeks, we go further - to the recreation facility mislaid in the depth of the tundra on the bank of Lovozero. On the way still few times we run aground.
the Original of article is in travel - the blog kezling. ru