For what sights Nizhny Novgorod is known?For 400 kilometers from Moscow on confluence of Volga and Oka wonderful primordially Russian city - Nizhny Novgorod was stretched. I. Repin called the city “ regal put over all East of Russia “. I think that everyone who at least once walked on embankments and streets of Nizhny Novgorod, will agree with the eminent artist.
A little history
Nizhny Novgorod was put by in 1221 the prince Yury Vsevolodovich in that place where Oka falls into Volga as a strong point of defense of the Russian borders against a mordva, cheremis and Tatars. The advantageous geographical position promoted a development of the city, and already to the middle of the 14th century it became extensive Suzdalsko`s capital - the Nizhny Novgorod principality.
The initial name was “ Nizhny Novgorod “. Historians explain it with the fact that it was located in “ nizovsky “ lands concerning Veliky Novgorod.
In 1311 the Moscow prince Yury Daniilovich took Nizhny Novgorod where put on reigning of the brother Boris. In 1341 the city became the capital of the independent Nizhny Novgorod principality which occupied the extensive territory.
Since the end of the 15th century for many decades Nizhny Novgorod becomes a reliable stronghold of Moscow in fight for a great river way. In the 16th century for construction in the city of the stone Kremlin the Moscow architects are invited. The mighty strengthenings of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin created on a uniform plan and the plan resisted under the pressure of numerous enemies. Its walls and towers remained up to now almost in an original form.
From walls of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin as winter of 1612 the militia led by Kozma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky for fight with polsko - the Lithuanian aggressors acted. Peter I`s arrival was on May 28, 1722 one more significant historical event in the history of the city. In Nizhny Novgorod he celebrated the fiftieth anniversary.
Since 1714 the city became provincial, and from 1779 to 1796 - the center of the Nizhny Novgorod namestnichestvo. At a turn of 18 and 19 centuries Nizhny Novgorod was the large scientific and cultural center of the country.
C 1900 - x Nizhny Novgorod turns years into the large center of shipbuilding, the automotive and aviation industry. The city by right becomes the third city of Russia.
Since the beginning 30 - x of the 20th century the city began to bear a name of A. M. Gorky, in honor of 40 - the anniversaries of literary and public work of the writer. After revolution the stage of active industrial growth of the city begins. For many generations of the Soviet people Gorky was associated with automobile plant which was constructed in 17 months and is put into operation on January 1, 1932. In 1991 the name Nizhny Novgorod is returned to the city.
The Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
many ancient constructions for which the city by right is famous remained Up to now. The architectural compositions created by talented masters with white stone a carved decor, picturesque ensembles surprise and admire with the beauty. To their number, undoubtedly, the Kremlin belongs, first of all.
The Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin - unique defensive works of the beginning of the 16th century - was constructed according to all rules of engineering art and was never captured by enemies. There is it at flat top and North - the western slopes of the Hour mountain.
Names of towers of the Kremlin following:
- Dmitriyevskaya, or Dmitrovskaya (main, by name the Nizhny Novgorod grand duke Dmitry Konstantinovich);
- the Storeroom (served as the warehouse place);
- Nikolskaya (in the neighbourhood with the St. Nicholas posadsky Church which now is not existing);
- Koromyslova (on the legendary girl who is allegedly buried under it with a yoke);
- Taynitskaya (on the secret underpass from it to Pochainie`s river (differently - Pochage);
- Northern, or Ilyinskaya (by the northern situation concerning other Kremlin towers and in the neighbourhood with posadsky Church of Elijah the Prophet);
- Hour (on the hours determined on it in the 16th century);
- Ivanovo (in the neighbourhood with the posadsky St. John the Baptist Church which now is not existing);
- White (on white stone facing of the lower part of an external facade); Of St. George (in the neighbourhood with posadsky Church of St. George, now not existing);
- Powder (on the purpose of storage of gunpowder and other ammunition).
Now from the Storeroom of a tower begin excursions on the Kremlin wall.
In the territory of the Kremlin flaunts with Mikhaylo`s - the Archangel`s Cathedral put at foundation of the city. The present building was built in 1631 in memory of a victory of a national militia. The building of a cathedral served as house church of grand dukes of N. Novgorod and a tomb of their descendants. In 1962 ashes of the Nizhny Novgorod patriot Kozma Minin are transferred to a cathedral. Last time the Cathedral was restored in 2005 on the occasion of 250 - the anniversaries since the birth of the Reverend Seraphim of Sarov.
Here in the territory of the Kremlin are located the building of the Nizhny Novgorod administration in due time serving as the residence of the governor of the Nizhny Novgorod Region, and the House of the governor built in 1837 - 1841 where now the Nizhny Novgorod art museum possessing one of the collections of the Russian painting, richest in Rossi, is located.
Opposite to the building of administration there is a monument - the obelisk to Minin and Pozharsky built in 1826 on folk remedies in commemoration of release of the Fatherland from polsko - the Lithuanian interventionists in 1612. Near an obelisk there is a memorial devoted to the residents of Nizhny Novgorod who were killed in battles with fascism. The subject of the Great Patriotic War is reflected also in the Walk of Fame where are presented “ victory tools “ which were let out by the Nizhny Novgorod industry. The Gorky Automobile Plant in 1943 mastered a mass production “ Katyushas “ and at " plant; Red Sormovo “ tanks T - 34, warships and submarines were issued.
Perpendicular to the House of the governor there is a House of Soviets constructed in 1931 in style of constructivism. From height of bird`s flight he reminds the plane. Now in this building the Nizhny Novgorod Duma works with .
From a tower of the Kremlin Of St. George to the river Chkalov Staircase (1943 - 1949), conceived as a monument to a victory in the Battle of Stalingrad goes down. At the bottom of a ladder the boat " is set; Hero “ being a part of the Volga flotilla.
Church of the Cathedral of Blessed Virgin Mary (Stroganovskaya) the Christmas (Stroganovskaya) church was constructed by
in 1719, and it seems to me the most beautiful Russian church construction of the 18th century. Construction was conducted on money of merchants Stroganov in " style; Russian baroque “. The church differs in a skillful white stone carving, a graceful belltower and a weather vane with hours. The furniture of church corresponds to its appearance. Up to now the carved iconostasis with painting of Stroganovsky isocounts remained.
A monument to K. Minin and D. Pozharsky
B 1808 Alexander I`s government announced a competition on installation in Nizhny Novgorod of a monument to heroes of a national militia 1612. The project of the famous sculptor I. P was recognized as the best. The sailor, but, to a great regret of residents of Nizhny Novgorod, the monument is decided to be placed in Moscow into Red Square. There was it on February 20, 1818.
200 years Later in Nizhny Novgorod, near John the Forerunner`s temple (where in 1612 K. Minin addressed residents of Nizhny Novgorod with the well-known appeal), was restored historical justice - the exact copy of the Moscow monument to Minin and Pozharsky is established.
The Nizhny Novgorod fair History of the Nizhny Novgorod fair begins
with the 17th century when in 1641 the fair was officially approved at walls of the Makaryevsky monastery located in 90 km from Nizhny Novgorod down the Volga River. In 1817 after the fire it was transferred to Nizhny Novgorod. It is not casual that within many decades the fair was called by name the predecessor Makaryevskaya.
At the Nizhny Novgorod fair for the first time for all the time of construction of fairs in Russia were arranged sanitarno - technical rooms, the Russia`s first underground vaulted sewerage was constructed.
In the middle of the 19th century the cost of the goods brought on the Nizhny Novgorod fair exceeded 60% of a total cost of the goods arriving to Russia. Exactly by this time the unique architectural complex which had not equal not only in Russian, but also in the European town planning of the 19th century was formed.
Today the Nizhny Novgorod fair - one of the most prestigious in the country of exhibition platforms.
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral History of the Cathedral is closely connected by
with history of the Nizhny Novgorod fair. When Makaryevskaya a fair was transferred to Nizhny Novgorod, in the territory of a fair Spassky Cathedral was constructed. But one temple appeared a little. The decision on construction of one more church for the Nizhny Novgorod fair was made.
In 1856 fund raising on construction of the temple began. The church is decided to be built on strelishche - the place of confluence of Oka and Volga. Vladimir Ivanovich Dahl and Robert Yakovlevich Kileveyn became architects.
The cathedral was closed in 1929 - 1930, in Soviet period in the temple the warehouse settled down. During the Great Patriotic War on the central drum of Alexander Nevsky Cathedral there was an antiaircraft battery protecting the Nizhny Novgorod sky from enemy raids.
In 40 - x years in the building of the temple there was a fire which destroyed an interior of a cathedral and a list on a ceiling and walls. After that the remains of internal plaster were brought completely down. In September, 1991 in a cathedral and in the adjacent territory began restavratsionno - recovery work which is continued to this day.
The state bank Was open for
in 1913 in honor of 300 - the anniversaries of a dynasty of Romanov. The bank was constructed in an architectural manner of the 17th century and differed in rich internal furniture. The bank on Bolshaya Pokrovskaya Street which is the pedestrian zone for tourists is located.
Of course, it is only small part of those amazing places which can be seen in Nizhny Novgorod. Travel more, in Russia there are a lot of surprising corners with which the soul fades delighted! And to receive unforgettable impressions, it is absolutely optional to leave far from the house.