Rus Articles Journal

When the Tretyakov gallery was founded?

When you will be in the Tretyakov gallery, do not pass the small picture which modestly hid among great treasures of the Russian painting. Skirmish with the Finnish smugglers - it was one of the two first Russian pictures acquired by Pavel Mikhaylovich Tretyakov for the collection.

Another became N. G. Shilder`s picture Temptation . Postoyte near this small picture yours faithfully and pleasure. It is considered that put when these pictures were acquired, became day of foundation of the State Tretyakov gallery. It occurred on May 22, 1856 .

Tretyakov got acquainted with the artist Vasily Grigoryevich Khudyakov in his workshop. His look stopped in a picture of the small sizes with the image of some skirmish. The live plot was taken as a basis: smugglers by boats transport stolen goods through border. And they were taken unawares. In Finland it was not a rarity. They were noticed by boundary guards. Fight was started.

Vasily Grigoryevich Khudyakov (1826-1871) is a historical, portrait and genre painter. The serf master of painting Vasily Grigoryevich Khudyakov belonged to Simbirsk noblemen Polivanov. After the termination of the Moscow school of sculpture and painting he received the manumission and came to the St. Petersburg academy of Arts, and continued the education in Italy later.

Our time was reached by very few pictures, painted Nikolay Gustavovich Shilder . Temptation - one of them.

The young girl near a bed of the dying mother refuses the bracelet offered svodny. Gloomy basement room. Here, in poverty, there lives a beautiful girl and her old woman - mother. Mother`s Days are considered. Tyazhelobolny, she does not get out of a bed behind a dark curtain any more. Once to the cellar bad guests went down: the rich young man and the disgraceful old woman ready for money to render any service. The old woman shows to the girl expensive bracelet. If the girl falls in love with the person who remained behind a door, he will present it this bracelet. It will be possible to eat to satiety, to call to mother of the doctor. On a girl`s face, in its movements - a fright and despair...

It is thought, the first acquisition was not casual. Something very personal, apparently, was in this picture for Tretyakov.

The picture is remarkable the fact that its plot was too close to a state of mind of Nikolay Gustavovich. He as if being exempted from some thoughts which were constantly tormenting him wrote. It, only, also brought it success and recognition, became its best work. N. G. Shilder painted the picture, being a pupil of Academy of Arts where he arrived in 1846 and where it was trained under the leadership of the famous teacher of a battle painting B. P. Villevalde. Subsequently N. G. Shilder painted portrait of the Russian emperors and members of their families. Earned by it.

Shilder Nikolay Gustavovich is the Russian portrait painter and the painter. Was born in 1828 in the Vitebsk province of the Nevelsky County. During training in Academy it was repeatedly noted by medals: in 1853 it was awarded by a small silver medal for the picture Picket Labe - guards of the Lithuanian regiment in 1857 - a big silver medal for the picture Temptation in 1859 - a small gold medal for the picture Usurer . In 1854 - 1855 Nikolay Gustavovich worked on pictures on subjects of the Crimean war, then addressed genre painting. In 1861 for the picture Payment with creditors it was awarded ranks of the academician of a genre and battle painting.

Rod Shilderov became famous for artists. In the Tretyakov gallery, in the Russian Museum and the museums of a number of the Russian cities there are pictures of Andrey Nikolaevich Shilder (1861-1919) Russian painter, son N. G. Shilder. I. I. Shishkin`s pupil, he managed to connect a manner of careful and exact transfer of the nature to effects of lighting and bright juicy painting. In 1880 got the First award of Society of encouragement of artists for the picture Fog in mountains . The participant of exhibitions since 1883. A. N. Shilder`s works were published in the " magazine; World illustration . In 1903 the artist was entitled the academician of painting. His pictures are in the museums of the world, and some - in private collections.

Pavel Mikhaylovich Tretyakov, the founder of nowadays world famous Tretyakov gallery, the hereditary honourable citizen and one of the few honourable citizens of Moscow awarded this rank by the end of the XIX century was born in 1832 in Moscow. Having conceived to arrange national gallery, Pavel Mikhaylovich collected not that he liked personally, and what would show development of the Russian painting throughout all time of its existence. Before collecting pictures, Pavel Mikhaylovich plunged into painting history, tried to experience each cloth, to understand specifics of work of artists of different eras.