Garden city. How there was this idea?Scientifically - technical achievements of the XIX century helped Great Britain to become the first industrial power of the planet, such “ world workshop “. Prompt growth of the English cities and emergence of absolutely new problems connected with overpopulation and deterioration in an ecological situation turned out to be consequence of it.
Unreasonably expanding industrial megalopolis deprived of habitual outlines, often anti-humane and insanitary, became as a matter of fact the real damnation of a century before last. Therefore it is not surprising that in London and the interesting idea of the city - the garden city was born.
In 1898 the English sociologist and the utopian Ebenizer Howard published the book under externally neutral name “ Tomorrow “. Then it did not cause interest practically in anybody. In 1903 this work was republished, and now it was called “ Garden cities of the future “. Change of the name had stunning effect because the book right there began to be bought up well and the ideas given in it found numerous supporters.
Howard in the work formulated and theoretically proved the concept of an idealnogogorod. This concept as showed the next years, was fated to play an important role in development of town-planning ideas of the first half of the XX century.
The English thinker recognized from the fact that modern to him the capitalist and industrial city is seriously ill. It was presented to it by unreasonably expanded monster who turned idea of cohabitation of people into something opposite, very awful and unnatural. For Howard London was the best example of such city - the monster demanding the fastest updating, or treatment, perhaps.
What was offered by the scientist? First of all he insisted on essential reduction of the sizes and number of the existing cities. However it seemed impossible. People aspired to the cities in search of earnings, improvement of quality of life and search of new prospects. How it was possible to turn this process back? To introduce high penalties? To connect army and police to business? To award those who leave the megalopolis?
Howard suggested to build compact garden cities near the existing industrial cities. In his opinion, in such small settlements it was possible to develop successfully local, almost harmless industry, and also agriculture. That is people could live near a place of application of the work, without coming off at the same time a useful natural environment.
The scientist said that each of primary garden cities has to have settlement population in 32000 people. Further such cells can form associations with the uniform center. The association can already total up to 250000 people.
Howard considered that around London about twenty garden cities had to be created. Actually, the garden city to it was presented in the form of the tough geometrical scheme. Building was planned by a ring in a radius at most one kilometer. On the periphery of a ring the enterprises and agricultural grounds had to be located.
In a ring the extensive city park which was the such green center was planned. The housing estate seemed low, small personal plots. Interestingly, all this really could go in in a ring with a radius of one kilometer?
It is necessary to notice that city problems already at that time seemed awful and low-solvable. Therefore Howard`s ideas were apprehended positively. They gave let weak, but nevertheless hope for change of life to the best...