Rus Articles Journal

How necessary things were invented? Part 3

what our ancestors only did not guess to make the life more convenient and more comfortable! Whether you know how the paper clip and a hanger - coat hanger, a condom or toilet paper and what ancient people replaced things, so necessary for us, with were thought up?

A wrapper for candies

When is told about the great inventor Thomas Alva Edison, remember, at least, five of his most known creations: phonograph, typewriter, exchange telegraph, generator of alternating current and, of course, bulb. The last was actually patented by the Russian scientist Alexander Lodygin, and Edison was already engaged in its improvement.

On Edison`s project in 1882 of New - York the first-ever power plant of a direct current was constructed. He created the device which was a dictophone prototype, the device for record of telephone conversations, designed iron - the nickel accumulator and a lot of things still (in total about 1000 patents). And among all this magnificence very few people remember that in 1872 the uncle Edison thought up also the waxed paper serving as the first wrapper for candies. Eh, if not it, as if we stored sweets now?.

Toilet paper

As was necessary to dodge to our ancestors that later a spravleniye of natural needs to make elementary hygienic procedure! Francois Rabelais`s

believed that it is the most pleasant to do it by means of a live duckling. In Ancient Rome for these needs adapted a sponge: it fastened on a stick and after use was located in a bowl with salty water.

Vikings wiped wool lumps, indigenous Americans - various leaves and ears of corn.

the French kings approached this question very elegantly and did it by lace and linen rags. to Use

in this case paper Chinese, but not mere mortals, and only emperors became first. Much passed all others to paper and around the world later: old newspapers, catalogs, almanacs were put to use.

Only in 1857 came to the New Yorker Joseph Gayetti to mind to cut paper accurate squares and to pack in packs. He so was proud of the invention that he on each leaflet printed the name. To establish a name of the person who thought up to roll toilet paper, it is not possible: for the first time the American paper-mill " began to let out such rolls; Scott Paper in 1890.

A condom

About three thousand years B.C. the governor of Crete tsar Minos for protection against venereal diseases during love joys used a fish bubble. Some consider that in Ancient Rome condoms did of muscular tissue of the died soldiers.

for one thousand years a prototype of a condom served B.C. In Ancient Egypt a linen sack and that it did not fall down, ribbons - ties were sewn to it. Two and a half more millennia used such sack.

in the 15th century condoms began to enjoy wide popularity as in Europe syphilis epidemic stormed. Then that sacks not only diseases, but also undesirable pregnancy help to avoid, still nobody knew. However already by the end of the 15th century the linen tip before the use began to be lowered in special chemical solution and when it dried, put on use. It were the first spermitsida which and now on all condoms.

the name condom condoms received only in the 17th century. According to one version, thanks to the doctor of the English king Charles II Kondomu who thought up as to the king to avoid illegitimate children and diseases from prostitutes. He made by

a condom of sheep guts. On another - the word went from Latin condon that means " storage;. Condoms from guts of animals cost very much and therefore were used by many several times.

With opening in 1839 of curing (it is process which allows to turn rubber into strong elastic material - rubber) condoms received the new birth in 1844 - m. The first latex condom was invented in 1919, it was thinner and did not smell of rubber. And the first greased condom was let out only 1957.

A hanger - a coat hanger it is difficult to believe

B, but the patent for the invention of a hook for clothes was taken out by a certain O. A. Nort only in 1869. On what before people hung up the things - not clearly. And only in 1903 Albert Parkhaus working at wire plant in response to constant complaints of workers that they lack hooks for the coats, invented a hanger - a coat hanger. it made by

two ovals which are the friend opposite to the friend at some distance Of a wire, and connected their ends in a hook. In 1932 these ovals connected a cardboard that the wet clothes did not sag and was not rumpled.

A was invented three years later a hanger with the lower level which became a prototype for all modern hangers.

A paper clip sheets of paper began to Connect

together in the 13th century: in the left top corner of each page cuts through which passed a ribbon became. Later the band began to be rubbed with wax that, in - the first, the tape became stronger, and in - the second, it was easier to take out or put the necessary sheets.

B 1835 the doctor from New - York John Ayrlend Howie invented the car for production of pins. Pins, naturally, were thought up for tailors that it was simpler to them to connect pieces of fabric during sewing, but also began to use them at a paper fastening.

For the first time to connect paper the twirled piece of a wire the Norwegian inventor Johan Vaaler in 1899 thought up, but it was not similar to a present paper clip. And the paper clip in the form in which it now also exists, was thought up in the English company Gem Manufacturing Ltd but for some reason so nobody ever patented this invention.

Laying and up to civilized inhabitants of the beginning of the XX century to a female half of the population was necessary to be

Starting with cave people extremely inventive in critical days. In prehistoric times of the lady all put on use: from a grass and mosses to sea sponges and seaweed. Ancient Egyptians used tampons from the softened leaves of the papyrus, Greek women adapted sticks with the reeled-up rags for tampons. Rome used wool, in Japan - paper, in Africa - grass bunches.

By the beginning of the 19th century of the woman began to sew laying from old rags and cotton. They were reusable use: after the use were erased and dried. By the end of century someone clever thought up to start up production of rag laying, it is more similar to diapers for adults, on a stream, but from - for lack of advertizing this production did not reach potential consumers.

at the beginning of the XX century of the woman guessed to use a gauze and vatu as hygienic accessories. In 20 - x years of laying began to be on sale in shops and to be advertized in women`s magazines. Ladies at that time had to fix them to underwear safe pins or to tie up strings on a waist.

the Very first tampon was invented and put into mass production in 1936, however tampons received wide popularity only at the end of 60 - x. And a decade later the adhesive tape by means of which to this day laying fastens on linen was thought up. Gel - absorbent which enters a basis of a modern hygienic napkin, was thought up only in 90 - x.

Part 1

Part 2