How thought up meter, and at the same time and a ruler?Such ordinary subject as a ruler, are available in each house. Absolutely precisely, in each house is though some ruler. Even if in a family there are no school students or engineers - draftsmen. From where it undertook? From shop, of course.
Really? How people did without it? It is necessary to draw something? Where the ruler, is not present problems. To measure something - there are no problems too. School students without it do not go to school, and engineers - draftsmen do not leave various types of rulers to the pension.
The ruler, approximately such what we it know today appeared at the time of Great French revolution, in France, respectively. Means, she is more than two hundred years old. However it is worth digging even more deeply. At excavation of the ancient city of Pompeii archeologists found carefully ostruganny plates serving, probably, to antique architects for implementation of various drawings.
In the Middle Ages monks who were the most competent segment of the population of those times used for these purposes thin plates from lead. In a number of the countries of Europe and in Ancient Russia applied iron rods to drawing works. In chronicles they were called “ shilets “ or “ pravilets “.
All these devices, of course, were not really convenient. It seems so today when there is a convenient line of any length and a form. But then the alternative was not. People used what had. Drew to themselves by means of pieces of iron and boards. Besides, to what to compare?
The person is so arranged that always aspires to new, improves what is. So gradually and the ruler was improved. Who knows, maybe, years through... we will dtsat the drawing is ready to have some clever laser ruler - a pencil, it is only enough to them to wave, direct and -. And to be surprised at the same time: really there was time when people used a usual wooden (plastic) ruler? There is antiquity! But still simple ruler very much is even necessary to us.
If to dig not only more deeply, but also is wider, then there would be no ruler if did not think up meter. In 1789 in France revolution began. It would seem what side here a ruler? But revolution was a certain incitement. Academicians received a task: to enter new system of measures. At that time in France changed old on new in general in everything and everywhere. Replaced a calendar, names of months, money, a state system, at last. The measure was not avoided too.
On May 8, 1790 the Constituent National Assembly adopted the Decree about reform of measures.
The commission gathered. P. - S. Laplace were its part. - L. Lagrange (who as a part of other commission offered decimal system of measures, including for division of days), G. Monge and other scientists. The commission submitted the project about acceptance as meter one forty-million share of length of a terrestrial meridian.
Introduction of such uniform system of measures in France will overstep the national limits over time. The meter will take root into all countries and will become the international measure.
But it then. And at first such system measures were officially not taken by the English Royal society. Did not want to strain, probably. It was necessary also to measure precisely. British just decided to observe from outside, fairly believing that if something and turns out they - will accept. Also will use. But it will not turn out - they both will not lose anything, and will not be dishonored. Cunning.
French in proud loneliness started exact measurement of length of a terrestrial meridian. Academicians directed this work. - B. - Zh. Delambr and P. - F. - A. Meshen. Measurements were carried out to revolutionary time that strongly complicated process. Group even several times arrested, due to a misunderstanding.
At the price of big efforts work was finished. And here, precisely measured forty-million part of a geographical meridian (which length, as we know, makes 40000 km) was taken for new unit of length (meter), one of which passed just through Paris. The French scientists measured its arch on a site from Dunkirk to Barcelona.
Then the meter was divided into centimeters, and centimeter - into millimeters. Right there, without postponing, made two platinum rulers 25 mm wide and 1 m long. This adaptation received the name “ republican meter “ which became a standard. It appeared, by means of such ruler it is convenient to do exact drawings. Two hares, so to speak, one shot. Both meter, and ruler.
Rulers with metric division at first were at the disposal of only academicians. Later also students used them. Usual schools of a ruler appeared at the beginning of the 19th century.
To Russia such “ republican “ rulers got in 1812 as military trophies. Production was arranged only at the very beginning of the 20th century. Thanks to the famous Russian scientist D. I. Mendeleyev who took the initiative of introduction of metric system of measures.