Rus Articles Journal

Transfusion of life - how it was in Russia for the first time?

the World blood donor day is celebrated on June 14. In May, 2005, during the World assembly of health care, Ministers of Health of the world decided to celebrate this date annually. Today blood transfusion does not seem superdifficult procedure. But so was by no means not always...

Everything began in England. On December 22, 1818 at a meeting of the London physician - surgical society Englishman James Blundell reported on successful blood transfusion from the person to the person. Blundell`s patient, the man of 35 years with a stomach carcinoma, received transfusion of 500 ml. blood and even experienced some improvement after procedure. However in 52 hours after that died.

Doctor Blundell offered a technique and a design of the first device for blood transfusion. Were not able to preserve blood then, and all transfusions were straight lines. It was necessary to try somewhat quicker to fill in in the patient donor blood, so far it did not turn. Rubber too was not invented yet, and all details device were metal. Both syringe, and tubes, and funnels. And blood, also as well as now, took from an elbow vein. And in an elbow vein poured.

There passed 14 years before the first successful blood transfusion took place in Russia. It is known that the European progress in blood transfusion was noticed by Russians. In 1830 in Voyenno - the medical magazine there was a review to this subject signed by the academician Stepan Fomich Hotovitsky. Most likely, Hotovitsky also sent to London to Blundell the pupil Andrey Wolf. Having returned from England, the obstetrician Wolf executed 7 blood transfusions at blood loss in labor. One his patient survived.

There was it on April 20, 1832 in St. Petersburg. The young obstetrician Andrey Martynovich Wolf then decided on unprecedented. He made what he learned abroad and that to him nobody in the country did. Wolf persuades to become the donor of the husband who at the same time both does not trust the doctor, and hopes. Takes blood from the man and pours to the woman in labor. Also it turned out!

We do not know either a name of his survived patient, or a name of her husband who became a donor. We know only that blood types then did not open yet, and the probability of compatible transfusion made only 57%. We do not know also what became with other six patients to whom Wolf made blood transfusion. Perhaps, they died especially as bleeding in labor was equivalent to a sentence in those days. Cesarean section was not invented yet, ultrasonography was not too. Childbirth in itself was quite dangerous adventure.

We do not know even details of the biography of Wolf. It is known only that Wolf held a position civil the general - a staff - doctors what in the modern language means the junior obstetrician - the gynecologist . The fact that Wolf became the author of the first successful blood transfusion in Russia is known only because the obstetrician described the experience in Messenger of the German doctors .

And later, in response to the remark of the academician Ilya Vasilyevich Buyalsky in Voyenno - the medical magazine that blood transfusions in Russia did not become, Wolf dared to refer to own publication. To the simple obstetrician to object the academician did not stick, and to Wolf let know it. Academicians picked to pieces Wolf`s recommendations to avoid transfusions to the person of blood of animals, to refuse the open syringe which allows blood to contact to air, and to refuse initial filling of tubes of the device for blood transfusion with water. Much later life confirmed correctness of the modest obstetrician, but participants of discussion of it did not learn.

That`s all that is known of the first blood transfusion in Russia. There were both official bans of blood transfusions, and the great expectations pinned on this method later. In 1900 blood types were open. There were banks of blood and institutes of blood transfusion.

Whether so there is a half-forgotten operation of Wolf of annual memoirs and attention? Probably, costs. Just because it was the first. And the place of events, probably, deserves a memorial board. But the main thing, of course, not record in a calendar and not a board on the house. The main thing that in memory of the first blood transfusion both on the Blood donor days, and in other days - people gave to neighbors the blood. Gave new life and new hopes .