Who is guilty of death of Titanic?Passengers had supper, danced, many already prepared for a dream. And nobody could even assume that in several moments there will be an accident. The huge iceberg destroyed the myth about floodability “ " Titanic;.
The mankind did not see such enormous ship yet. The biggest, the most powerful, the most reliable, absolutely as designers, unsinkable claimed, he and the name received corresponding - “ " Titanic;. Floated from Royal shipyards, “ " Titanic; went to the first swimming - and did not return. Unprecedented accident shook the world.
Builders and owners of this giant of passenger fleet self-confidently declared: “ The Lord will not be able to sink this ship “. The vanity and arrogance were cruelly punished: the enormous iceberg during only a few moments ripped up the " case; " Titanic; made of two steel layers, and ice water of the Atlantic Ocean rushed in compartments.
“ " Titanic; sank immediately. The orchestra still played a popular smash hit, and the ship already began to plunge into black waters of the ocean.
The magnificent steamship - the giant was considered as a " symbol; Golden Age “ which was torn off by World War I. The American writer Tom Sheylz told: “ It was not just the ship, it was the time capsule which carried away with itself in a grave all gloss and vanity “ Golden Age “.
Whether it was possible to avoid the terrible human victims at the tragedy “ " Titanic;? Yes, researchers claim. If owners of the navigable " line; White star “ equipped the steamship with enough boats and rafts, not hundreds would manage to escape, and, perhaps, to thousands of passengers. But owners even of thought did not assume that the ship can sink.
Short and dramatic life “ " Titanic; Northern Ireland began in design offices of ship-building shipyards of Harland and Wolf in Belfast. His creators, alas, cared for luxury and speed more, than for safety of swimming.
Designers presented “ revolutionary “ the project according to which the ship had to remain afloat at any incident at the sea. The project provided creation of sixteen waterproof compartments along the ship case. Partitions between compartments differed in special durability - such type of partitions was not used neither in civil, nor in military fleet yet. Creators “ " Titanic; assured that the ship will not receive how many - nibud a serious list even if will be completely flooded two compartments.
The most experienced ship builders and designers, engineers, clinchers, cabinet makers and other experts selflessly worked, creating the most magnificent ship in the world. Everything on it struck and was surprising. Length “ " Titanic; made 275 meters; four huge chimneys with a diameter of 6,7 meters everyone as if four towers towered over this vast object which height from Kiel to tone fires equaled to height of the eleven-floor house. The weight of the ship made 46 thousand tons. Specially designed 50 thousand horsepowers engines allowed this giant move with a speed of 23 knots to hour
Passengers of the first class could luxuriate that is called. By the ship for them the swimming pool - during that time a novelty in shipbuilding was built. Passengers could luxuriate during swimming in the Turkish baths, do gymnastics in a magnificent gym, play tennis on special court, have a rest in “ Versailles drawing room “ in “ Parisian cafe “ in a palm garden, in numerous musical salons, restaurants and bars.
For passengers of the first class smart apartments and cabins - luxury, for the others - convenient cabins of the second and third class were equipped.
Administration of a steamship line “ White star “ widely advertized “ " Titanic; - the biggest and magnificent ship in the world. Probably, therefore the list of passengers of the first flight from Southampton to New - York was the original reference book “ Who is who “. There surnames of the richest and famous people of that time appeared: the financier Benjamin Gugenkheym who became famous for the charity; subsequently the well-known museum of arts in New - York was called by his name; co-owner of large department store “ Meysiz “ Isidor Strauss; American artist Francis Millet and many other rich men and celebrities. Many of them went to travel with the families.
Construction “ " Titanic; cost then 4 million pounds sterling. In today`s prices it is 100 million - absolutely fantastic sum. From Southampton to New - York the ship went to the first swimming under the British and American flags on April 10, 1912. On its decks 20 lifeboats - four more were placed, than demanded the British code of trade navigation, but terribly it is not enough to place on all of them passengers of the ship - the monster.
The first five days spent in the high sea did not bring to the " team; " Titanic; any surprises. At night on April 14 the sea kept calm, but which - where in the navigation area icebergs were seen. They did not confuse the captain Smith...
At 11 hours 40 minutes evenings from an observation post on a mast shout unexpectedly was heard: “ Directly at the rate iceberg! “ At the same time three blows of a ship bell - the warning of the approaching danger sounded. Thirty seconds later there was a collision of the liner and an ice slope. It shook the huge ship, having brought down the mass of ice splinters on smart decks from a teak. From the cabins passengers poured out. They admired a fantastic picture: in night, under electric searchlights of an ice floe shone as diamonds.
Still nobody realized that occurred, nobody felt ominous breath of death. People laughed, selected sharp splinters.
The tip of the iceberg on height made about about 30 meters. It is possible only to try to imagine how what disappeared under water was huge. The iceberg punched a big gap in the right board of the ship and it is easy as paper, broke off waterproof compartments on which such were laid great hopes. In the huge ship with an improbable speed ice water rushed.
At first the first five compartments were completely filled, then water began to come to the sixth and seventh, and gradually all compartments were filled with water.
Too slowly incredibility of the events began to reach the captain Smith. Listening to reports of officers on accident, he just could not believe the ears. And precious minutes left for nothing. Only at midnight the captain ordered to passengers to get into boats, and the ship suffering disaster gave a signal “ SOS “.
Evacuation was followed by numerous human tragedies. So, Ida Strauss refused to leave the husband and to take the place in the boat. When the liner disappeared under waves, it accepted death together with darling. And here chairman of a steamship line “ White star “ who bore moral responsibility for thousands of passengers “ " Titanic; did not show such courage. He jumped in the boat and... spent the life rest despised and condemned by all who knew it.
Having learned about accident, the coal king Gugenkheym and his valet Victor Dzhiglio put on dress suits and prepared for a meeting with death as true gentlemen. Ten millionaires drowned. Together with them on a bottom the diamonds and other riches estimated then at 4 million pounds sterling left.
From - for indistinct actions of team on decks “ " Titanic; there was panic. Onboard besides boats there were folding rafts on which numerous passengers could escape, but in time they were not brought together and they were stored in improper places.
When the pernicious list of the ship began, alarm rockets - the last illusive hope of the captain to the aid of passing vessels were launched in the night sky over the ocean. It was difficult to count on good luck, and all - the happy occurence could help fateful. Watchman of the passenger steamship “ California “ being in nineteen miles from suffering disaster “ " Titanic; noticed alarm rockets.
But as it often happens, the destiny did not give to the victims of accident of the last chance. The watchman took distress signals, a call for help for usual lighting fires of other steamship, and “ California “ in blissful ignorance drifted in an ice-rink all night long. Only at five o`clock in the morning her captain decided to go to a suspicious zone. By then “ " Titanic; for a long time was based in the gloomy ice grave.
The most tragic destiny comprehended passengers - the immigrants occupying cabins of the third class. Being in the lower tiers of the ship, they got to the real trap as the American immigration service ordered to lock all doors conducting on main decks. By then, when crowds of people escaped upward, the most part of lifeboats was already floated.
In two hours thirty five minutes after accident a list “ " Titanic; made nearly 90 degrees, that is the ship practically lay onboard. And then the superliner disappeared under water, having formed huge whirlpool which involved people and fragments of a rigging on a sea surface. In the agony hissing was heard, the sea was blown up by the massive air bubbles formed as a result of explosion of boilers - and everything ended. “ " Titanic; began to fall by four-kilometer depth slowly.
Steamship “ Karpatiya “ the accepted SOS, ran to the accident site at top speed. It arrived with delay at one o`clock, but managed to pick up people who escaped on boats. Such lucky persons, as there were already 705 people.
Seventy three years the ship in the deep underwater grave as one of uncountable testimonies of human carelessness lay. Word “ " Titanic; became a synonym of the adventures doomed to failure, heroism, cowardice, shocks and adventures. Societies and associations of the escaped passengers were created. The businessmen who are engaged in raising of sunken vessels dreamed to lift a superliner with all its uncountable riches.
In 1968 the team of divers headed by the American oceanographer doctor Robert Ballard found it, and the world knew that under the huge pressure of water thickness the huge ship collapsed on three parts.
Fragments “ " Titanic; were scattered on the square with a radius of 1600 meters. Ballard found the nasal part of the ship which deeply got into soil under weight of a body weight. In eight hundred meters from it the stern lay. Nearby there were ruins of a middle part of the case.
Among ship fragments on all bottom various objects of material culture of that far time rolled: a set of kitchen accessories of copper, wine bottles with traffic jams, coffee cups with an emblem of the navigable " line; White star “ toilet accessories, door handles, candelabrums, stoves and ceramic heads of dolls with which small children played...
One of the most tremendous underwater images which was imprinted by doctor Ballard`s movie camera became broken shlyup - the beam which powerlessly is hanging down from a ship board - the silent witness of tragic night which forever will remain in the list of world accidents.