What do we know about history and the principles of judo?For all the history mankind were thought up by a set of different types of combat and fighting sports. Their considerable part has the roots in east civilizations.
[ B] of Judo (“ soft way “) is also one of the most noticeable east types of fight based mainly on captures, zaloma and throws. Unlike the majority of the western types of fight staking on own strength of the fighter the principle of the maximum use of strength of the opponent is the basis for judo. Judo represents soft, sports option to a dzhi - a dzhits (dzyudzyuets).
Historical information. Roots to a dzhi - a dzhits go to an extreme antiquity. It is known that it logged in combat and physical training of Samurais in feudal Japan. In 1868 in this country radical bourgeois reforms began. The former soldiers, whose profession was the service of large feudal lords, were out of work, and many of them began to earn to themselves a living, teaching a dzhia - a dzhitsa to everyone. This art was not uniform system, and represented a set of styles and types of hand-to-hand fight.
In 1882 young Japanese scientific of Dzigoro Kano Kodokan opened in Tokyo own school (“ House of comprehension of the Way “), where began training in the new, developed by him system of combat sport which he called judo (“ way of flexibility, soft way “). At the same time it was focused by it on the second part of the name (to) meaning not only “ way “ but also “ understanding of life “. Explaining features of the doctrine, Kano writes: “ Judo means the Way of softness, a pliability, or ability to concede for the sake of a final victory while to dzyudzyuets represents technical skill and practice of judo “. The principle is obligatory: “ Efficiency Maximum, energy minimum “ (“ to a seyryok dzenkyo “) . Kano considered judo as means of formation of harmoniously developed personality. On precepts of Kano, those who are engaged in judo pass good physical and morally - psychological preparation. Any judoist has to be able to reveal strong and weaknesses of the rival, to be courageous, to show persistence in fight, to be respectful to other people.
Judo developed in the conditions of rigid, time of the cruel competition from other schools to a dzhi - a dzhits. However soon it gained official recognition of the authorities, found application in police and army, and in several years entered the program of physical training of average and higher educational institutions.
From all types of martial arts of East Asia of judo was the first, gained the international recognition. Distribution of judo in the world began in 1930 - e years. After World War II the American occupational authorities imposed a ban on martial arts in Japan that judo development suspended. After cancellation of a ban interest in Far East martial arts flashed in the world with a new force.
Traditionally classes of judo were given on the floor covered with the straw mats called “ tatami “. Now instead of straw for a tatami modern materials are used.
Suit of the judoist (“ judogi “) includes wide cotton trousers and a spacious jacket from the same fabric. Fabric of a judogi has to be rather strong since in many methods of judo captures for clothes are used. The jacket twice densely girds with a belt made of cloth which ends are tied in front by knot. Progress of the studying judo are reflected in assignment to it more and more high student`s degrees (“ kyu “) since 6 - y (younger) and finishing 1 - y (senior). According to the appropriated degree pupils have the right to put on belts of this or that color: with 6 - y on 4 - yu degree - a white belt, with 3 - y on 1 - yu - a brown belt. Continuing to be improved, the judoist receives 1 - y is given (the first degree of the master), and together with it and the right for carrying a black belt. In total in category of the masters possessing a black belt there are 10 degrees. Successfully acting fighters can count a maximum on 7 - y is given as higher degrees are appropriated for administrative activity and a contribution to judo development as sport.
In Japan there is a legend that the principles of this martial art were formulated by the doctor Sirobey Akiyama. Somehow, walking on a garden early in the morning, he noticed that branches of big trees were broken by a heavy snowfall, and only one small tree is proud stood, without having suffered from bad weather.
Its branches dumped weight, having caved in to the earth, and became straight again. Having seen it, Akiyama exclaimed: “ To Win, having given in! “
The founder of fight spoke: “ Judo is a way to the most effective way of use of mind and body. The essence of judo consists in comprehension of art to attack and defend through persistent trainings, tempering a body and cultivating will “.
Attached also huge significance of Dzigoro Kano to achievement of the maximum result. It means that the purpose of fight of judo is achievement of the best result with application of a minimum of efforts. The master also spoke: “ The Maximum result - the base on which there is all building of judo. Moreover, this principle can be completely used also in system of physical training. It can also be used for development of mental capacities during occupations, and also at education and formation of character. It is possible to achieve that this principle will have influence on manners of the person, on how he puts on, lives, on his behavior in society and the relation to people around. In a word, this principle can become art of life “.
As for female judo, it is obliged by the emergence to Dzigoro Kano`s wife who was a furious enthusiast of fight. The first World Cup among women took place in 1980, and began to participate in the Olympic Games of the judoist since 1992.
Judo as physical education.
the Purpose of physical education consists in making a body strong, useful and healthy. In the course of physical education all muscles of a body have to develop symmetrically. Kano created a special set of the warming exercises developing all muscles of a body for judoists. In addition, regular practicians both a kat, and a randora are necessary.
Judo as sport. Randori`s
is a basis of competition in judo, a sports element of the Kano system. Rigid receptions are forbidden here, and rivals try to win a flawless victory thanks to the equipment, effective use of energy and appropriate time sense. Randori, thus, represents check of progress of the person in development of this art and allows the fighter to learn, how well he is capable to act in comparison with others.
Judo as ethical preparation.
judo Training, according to his creator, helps the person to become more vigilant, self-assured, resolute and concentrated. Most significantly the fact that judo initially was considered as a tutorial to application of other major principle of Kano - “ Zita of a keea “ (mutual aid and cooperation).
Dzigoro Kano also allocated of 5 principles of judo for everyday life :
1. Attentively watch yourself and circumstances of own life, attentively watch other people, attentively observe for all people around.
2. Own an initiative in any undertaking.
3. Comprehend completely, act resolutely.
4. Know when it is necessary to stop.
5. Adhere to an average between pleasure and depression, exhaustion and laziness, reckless bravado and cowardice.