What is heraldry? Part 4 - the Coats of arms.the CITY COATS OF ARMS
at the heart of the city and State Emblems - the press of feudal lords certifying authenticity of documents. The patrimonial coat of arms of the feudal lord, thus, passed at first to the lock press, and then and to the press of the lands belonging to it.
At emergence of the new cities and formation of the new states of the requirement of time and legal norms led to creation of the coats of arms, or absolutely new which are not borrowed from the patrimonial noble coats of arms, or mixed.
It is possible to give the coat of arms of Paris in which the ship and the azure field adjoin to gold lilies as an example. The ship symbolizes the island lying in the downtown to de la Zita on the river Seine having the form of the ship and the trading companies, the main component of municipal economy. The azure field with gold lilies - an old emblem of a dynasty Kapetingov under the auspices of which there was Paris.
the CORPORATE COATS OF ARMS
Since the end of XIII and within the 14th centuries the heraldry gets into all areas of public life, and heraldic terminology becomes common in occupation layers of society. The heraldry becomes fashionable in literature, art, life. The coats of arms appear everywhere.
The knights who came back from crusades began, imitating magnificent clothes of east governors, to carry the special stamp attires corresponding on a coloring to the coats of arms and decorated with the embroidered stamp figures and mottoes. Servants and armourbearers receive clothes with the coat of arms of the misters, ordinary noblemen put on a dress with the coats of arms of the senores, women of quality begin to wear dresses with images of two coats of arms: on the right - the husband`s coat of arms, at the left - own. The heraldry becomes an important component of culture of Western Europe.
City handicraftsmen and dealers created the guilds registered in quality “ legal entities “ and supplied respectively by the coats of arms. It was accepted that liverymen wore clothes of heraldic flowers of the association - special liveries. So, for example, members of the London Myasnitsky company carried is white - blue liveries, bakers - olivkovo - green and chestnut flowers. It was allowed to London company of furriers to use ermine fur in the coat of arms though according to medieval norms this heraldic color could be used only by royal and noble families. On the corporate coats of arms mainly instruments of labor were located.
The similar coats of arms called by vowels - “ armes parlantes “ to whom the name of craft was transferred by heraldic symbols, receive many shops and guilds.
Persons interested to imitate the aristocracy rich citizens used family signs like the coats of arms though they also were not official. But the French government needing money decided to turn the extended fashion to itself on advantage and allowed to get the coats of arms everyone, but for a payment. Moreover, greedy officials even obliged citizens to get the coats of arms. As a result of introduction in 1696 of a tax on the right to have the personal coat of arms the treasury began to gain considerable income as the coats of arms the huge number was registered. But thereof value of the coats of arms strongly fell in France - extremely bred coats of arms depreciated.
Educational institutions used also centuries the coats of arms. Universities often received the coats of arms of their founders. The Eton college in 1449 received the coat of arms from the founder king Henry VI (1421 - 1471). Three white lilies on this coat of arms symbolize Virgin Mary in honor of whom the college was founded.
the CHURCH COATS OF ARMS
From the first days of the existence the church applied for the higher and absolute authority in this world therefore appropriated all attributes of temporal power including the coats of arms.
The crossed gold and silver keys of the apostle Pyotr - " became the papacy coat of arms in the 14th century; allowing “ and “ knitting “ tied up by a gold cord, on a dark red board under a papal tiara. This coat of arms is the official coat of arms of Vatican today, but each father receives the own coat of arms in which keys and a tiara frame a board.
The church, being the largest feudal lord of the Middle Ages, early began to use the coats of arms in the practical purposes - for identification and demonstration of territorial accessory of the church organizations. The coats of arms meet on the seals of abbeys and bishops since the 12th century. The most widespread symbols of church heraldry - St. Pyotr`s keys, an eagle St. Ioann and other signs symbolizing various Saints, details of church use and the most various crosses.
In Great Britain there are certain rules for the coats of arms of heads of church showing their status in church hierarchy. For example, the coats of arms of archbishops and bishops are decorated with miters (the coat of arms of the Pope the tiara crowns), and on the coats of arms of priests of more low rank are located, according to their status, the special hats of different flowers supplied with multi-colored cords and brushes. The dean, for example, can have a black hat with two violet unary cords with three red brushes on each of them. Priests of the Roman Catholic church do not enter jurisdiction of official heraldic bodies, but the coats of arms used by them are regulated by the special order since 1967. For example, the coat of arms of the Catholic archbishop may contain a green hat with two green unary cords, each of which is supplied with ten green brushes.
as auxiliary scientific discipline are directed to INSTEAD OF the CONCLUSION by
of Effort of modern heraldry to studying of the coats of arms, namely to identification of their owners, clarification of history of their origin and establishment of time of their creation. Serious historical researches, certainly, will require more detailed information, but to understand what is the coat of arms what it consists of that is meant and as its basic elements are called, and, at last, to try to create independently the coat of arms, being guided by the stated principles, with success it is possible to use this review. Good luck!