Rus Articles Journal

What is heraldry? Part 2 - Knights.

CRUSADES

the Crusades proceeding from 1096 to 1291 made the whole era in the European history. The beginning of this bicentennial war was provoked by the Turks approved in Palestine - fanatical Muslims who, armed with the irreconcilable religion, began to profane shrines of Christianity and to make difficulties to the Christians wishing to make pilgrimage to Palestine and Jerusalem. But the true reasons lay more deeply and consisted in the centuries-old opposition of Europe and Asia continuing still.

A lot of things in heraldry indicate that it developed during the East gain crusaders. During crusades the European feudal lords who well were known to all in the homeland joined huge international army and on the general background lost usually pronounced external identity, from - for what conceived requirement to somehow allocate themselves from the mass of the same knights, to show the national, patrimonial and military identity.

Gains of crusaders were always followed by awful robbery and a robbery therefore the rule according to which the knight, the first broken into any house of the taken city, appeared the owner of everything that was in it was established. Knights had to note somehow stolen to protect it from encroachments of colleagues. With the advent of the coats of arms this problem was solved by a pribivaniye to a door of the house of a board with the coat of arms of its new owner. Not only certain crusaders, but also large military leaders had such need: inhabitants of the houses and quarters taken by their groups hung out at themselves banners of these troops that will not undergo a robbery from other feudal lords.

Fading of many noble childbirth of Europe which all man`s representatives perished during campaigns was a consequence of crusades. Notable surnames, whose roots went to an era of a gain of Rome barbarous tribes, just disappeared. Thereof the European monarchs were for the first time forced to favor the nobility, creating the new aristocracy. The coats of arms played at the same time an important role as the stamp board brought from the Holy Land was often only basis to apply for the nobility and the documentary proof of a noble origin.

So, a congestion in one place of a great number of feudal lords from the different countries (a situation, unusual to Europe), international character of krestonosny army, need to identify each other and (in the conditions of illiteracy and language barriers) to approve an own name, and also features of arms, a way of warfare and loan of a set of inventions of east civilization - all this became the reason of emergence and registration of heraldry.

KNIGHTLY TOURNAMENTS to Knightly tournaments the coat of arms is obliged to by

not to a lesser extent, than to crusades. Tournaments for a long time became an integral part of the Western European life. Only knights with faultless reputation were allowed to participation in them. Violation of the knightly code threatened with an awful shame. The knight it had to be well visible from above, from stands, especially during the general fight. That is why appeared (or in any case widely extended) mentioned already a navershiya - the figures strengthening on a top of a helmet made of an easy tree, skin and even from a papya - Masha (later - from more expensive materials). The famous German knight errant of the 14th century Ulrich a background Liechtenstein which took part in several tournaments dressed as legendary King Arthur, entered fashion on difficult a navershiya: it carried the helmet decorated with a figure of Venus, in one hand holding a torch, and in another - an arrow.

Tents or tents in which knights prepared for competitions stored the weapon and had a rest in breaks between fights (the same tents crusaders used in campaigns), further will also find reflection in art of heraldry - they will turn into a heraldic cloak and a tent shade .

From wild bloody slaughter tournaments evolved in the colourful dramatized representations where formalities gained the increasing value, and actually fight became less important and more conditional.