Rus Articles Journal

What bankers do not tell about?

In any business are subtleties which are not advertized. What does the businessman applying for the loan have to consider? Correspondent SB asked on it familiar financiers and businessmen. As a result the set of unwritten rules which knowledge increases chances of success in communication with

banks the Rule first turned out: trust, but check

All banks - credit institutions, but not all in reality grant the loans. In Russia actively a half of banks which declare this service among the main directions of the activity is engaged in crediting at best. Many just do not have spare cash. But they seek to look solidly to attract new clients.

Therefore if you create new firm and you assume to take the credits, once an opportunity estimates bank already at the time of opening of the settlement account. It is better not to hurry with this decision, and to spend week - another for special market research. Compare tariffs for service and other parameters distinguishing different banks. Take an interest what place this or that of them takes in the market of crediting. Unfortunately, there are no absolutely reliable reference points for this purpose. Ratings which are published in the open press are not always credible. Therefore the most reliable way - to listen to recommendations of colleagues about business.

Rule second: put on a middling

in principle, you will not be mistaken if you open the account in large known bank. At today`s leaders of the word do not disperse from affairs. None of them straight off will refuse to deal even with the smallest firm. But there can be it that she will not accept such partnership. As a rule, it is settlement - cash service in bank - heavyweight is more expensive, than in " institution; mediocre (an exception - unless Sberbank). Besides, the more bank, the more long in it procedure of registration of the credit, the more exacting it to observance of all formalities which arranged this process.

Ideally, the company with a small turn should be served in bank where there is a program of financing of small business. According to Association of regional banks of Russia, in 2002 any special policy in this direction was pursued by 49% of credit institutions of the country.

Rule third: look for foreigner with the special program

All banks with foreign participation working in Russia is distinguished by one feature. They advance the specialized credit products constructed on the standardized technologies. For small firm such policy - a two-edged sword. The beginning enterprise will never receive money from foreign bank which is guided by the large Russian companies. But if foreigners specialize in small business, then in this direction they work extremely consistently too. They have the lowest interest rates, they issue the credits with a minimum of formalities. At an assessment of efficiency of business can take into consideration black figures. Even the superconservative Sberbank allows such liberties if provides money not from own means, and within the special program realized together with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

In general foreign banks (both western, and east) are very pedantic. If they do not accept your answer at least on one of a set of the standard questions defining destiny of the credit application, then you, certainly, are refused. And in most cases even without explanations. And repeatedly to address to this concrete bank, its branches and affiliated structures senselessly. Being declared the person of non grata once, for bank you will remain that up to the end.

Rule fourth: become the

As a rule, banks credit only regular customers. Cases when the credit is obtained by the company which consists on it is settlement - cash service in other place, - an exception. For this purpose the borrower should agree to a high interest rate and to provide very reliable providing.

Such position speaks simply. Bad the clients who are paying off on the credit with delay spoil to bank the reporting. Therefore he seeks to reduce risk of possible non-payments. The bank can easily charge money off an account of firm which constantly works with it. And from outside he demands additional guarantees from borrowers.

From there is conclusion: the company showing high current turnovers of the account has more chances to obtain the credit, than at the firm making the majority of transactions for cash.

Also it is absolutely unreal to agree about the credit with the organization which does not work in your region. It makes sense to address to banks from another town only in those cases if they have branch in your area or the republic. Besides, sometimes such branches should coordinate allocation of the credit with parent organization and process is considerably dragged out.

Rule fifth: it is possible to bargain

Any credit agreement - the same transaction as all other commercial operations. Therefore for one clients the bank establishes lower rates, for others - higher. What it depends on?

In - the first, from your credit history. If you more than once borrowed money at this bank and accurately returned them, then you can suggest it to lower percent, motivating it with high reliability of the company.

In - the second, crediting term is important. Usually small firms borrow money for the period no more than a year. In average banks to which they most often address, regularity such: the lowest rates on the credits which come back within one quarter.

In - the third, the crucial role is played by providing which is offered by the borrower under the obligations. The best pledge - liquid uninhabited real estate or securities. It is possible to put personal jewelry or the car, but they will be estimated, with rare exception, is low. If the apartment is put, it is important that in it the registered residents were not registered.

Commodity pledge is possible. But such option passes only at firms which enjoy special confidence. Bankers perfectly understand: seldom who will resist temptation to put part of the put goods into circulation. The loan officer is obliged to monitor constantly his existence in a warehouse. It is very troublesome and in reality sometimes it is just impossible. And to potter with realization of some perfumery or clothes if the client does not manage to pay off, the bank does not want at all - it is not its business. Therefore it has to be absolutely confident in reliability of such borrower.

At last, bankers will surely pay attention to the current turnover of your company. It is necessary to prove that you have enough means for service of the credit. And at full confidence money can be given even under turnover of the enterprise. To really receive the sum making from 50% to 65% of monthly revenues to the settlement account.

In the bargaining around the credit at bank and the client opposite tasks. One wants to raise an interest rate, and - to lower another. As a rule, the parties stop on mutually acceptable conditions, somewhere in the middle. However it is important to remember that receiving the credit is accompanied by a number of overhead costs: it is necessary to pay for opening and service of the loan account, for an assessment and insurance of pledge. Therefore to understand as far as the credit is actually favorable, it is necessary to define a so-called effective rate of crediting. It pays off on a formula:

The sum of all expenses connected with receiving and service of the credit/Sum of the credit x 100%

Is effective such rate which allows to gain income from credit money.

Rule sixth: stock up with patience

the Standard term which leaves on receiving the credit, - one or one and a half months. You keep within these time frames if you quickly and competently prepare all documents and if in their bank... will not lose. Yes, there are also such incidents. However, bankers differently react to them.

The case when in one of average banks the application of very dear client with magnificent credit history got lost is known. When there passed the term of its consideration, the representative of the borrower called to consult about results. But the unlucky staff of credit department could answer only one: the pier, the manager who is engaged in the company left and will call back at once as soon as he returns. As a result the decision on assignment on which at credit committee week usually leaves was accepted for ten (!) minutes.

Rule seventh: you seize the moment

Each bank works under the budget for which investments which are supposed to be made within a year undersign. Including - in crediting. By drawing up such plan bank analysts surely estimate risk level with which financing of this or that branch is connected. Depending on it priority and secondary directions of crediting, and for each of them are established the limit of means is allocated.

Perhaps, one more feature which is noticed by experts is connected with it. Most of all chances to obtain the credit in the first half of financial year when the limits are not reached yet. In the Russian banks the next financial year begins since January 1, in some foreign - since March 1.

Especially accurately those allocate such credit cycles foreigners which realize special programs for small and medium business. As a rule, they finance projects for the sum from $10 thousand up to $50 thousand by results of competitions about which periodically appears in the business press. Each such action lasts three months. The last comes to an end on October 1 therefore it is important to submit the credit application before the expiration of this term. Otherwise it is necessary to wait till next year.

In any business is subtleties which are not advertized. What does the businessman applying for the loan have to consider? Correspondent SB asked on it familiar financiers and businessmen. As a result the set of unwritten rules which knowledge increases chances of success in communication with

banks the Rule eighth turned out: show optimism

is Not less important to present the request competently. Do not adjust an event, do not demand money immediately, at least as an exception. Never you say that without this credit your enterprise expects crash. Nobody will invest in the dying business. On the contrary, constantly emphasize prospects of the project.

What factors can become decisive during the analysis of a package of documents which are filed together with the application? The more formally the bank approaches this procedure, the value beautifully made business - the plan is more. You should not do it long and to tire managers who will study it. The main thing - to put in it rather optimistical figures and their tax in due form that are accepted at bankers. Most likely, the loan officer and the head of department of crediting will study in detail your papers. They recommend to credit committee to make this or that decision. However if his members wish to examine attentively about business too - the plan, carelessly made document will not promote trust to the borrower.

Rule ninth: conduct accounting

In addition, be ready to the fact that the loan officer will ask to devote it in an inner sanctum - to show the intimate documents reflecting real turnover of the enterprise. To agree or not to this offer - your right. But if the figures appearing in official balance are too small, you do not obtain the credit. The annual proceeds from sales of production should not be less than the sum which you occupy. Therefore if your firm intends to use credit services, it needs to keep the management accounting allowing to estimate results of its activity.

And this requirement extends also to those small enterprises which use the simplified system of the taxation and are not obliged to hand over in tax official balance at all. Instead they keep the Book of the accounting of the income and expenses. But in reality still any bank did not issue the credit, being guided by this Book. So it will not be possible to save on accounts department: it is necessary to conduct all types of the account - and on - white and on - black .

Rule tenth: do not hope for bribes

If the firm which does not have credit history addresses for money, the inspector is not limited to studying of documents. He is obliged to visit this enterprise and comprehensively to estimate it. Whether it is possible to convince the manager to close eyes on unprofitable circumstances? Theoretically - yes. In banks as everywhere, there are corrupted employees. But strongly it will not be possible to embellish affairs. Excessively iridescent figures will arouse mistrust. And, besides, recently credit institutions even more often invite for the analysis of potential of this or that business of independent appraisers.

Long ago lost force and the magic word kickback . According to businessmen with an experience, this criminal mechanism worked at most till 1993 - 1995. The firm took in a share of one of heads of bank - and the issue of financing was resolved nearly by itself. The scheme 20:80 at which 20% of the money received in bank left to the corrupted manager was most often applied, and 80% remained at the disposal of the client. Such credit usually did not come back to bank.

Rule eleventh: be able to be on friendly terms nobody cancelled

But a personal contact. The familiar banker can put in a word for your firm at a meeting of credit committee. This guarantee will become the important testimony of its reliability.

But information which the informed manager of bank can provide is even more useful. Whether crediting scales increase this year? Whether the limit allocated to your branch is big? Whether not late to submit the application to participate in a competition? How it is better to issue it?

It is important to know all this to be in the purpose sure of the aim. It is worth asking about much directly the inspector at submission of the credit application. And if details are required - learn, than you can be useful to one of members of credit committee, invite him in good restaurant and have a talk heart-to-heart. When the right moment comes, tell about the project and ask for suggestions.


1. Preparation and the analysis of the documents

- the Client submits to bank the credit request, business - the plan, the balance sheet, data of management accounting.

- the Bank estimates efficiency of the investment project.

- the Bank estimates alternative options of financing of the project.

- the Bank analyzes solvency of the borrower and his guarantors.

- the Bank studies structure of credit risks.

2. The credit committee of bank considers the application and makes the decision

3. Delivery of money


Add to yourself on a point for an affirmative answer on each of questions 1 - 7 and subtract on one point for each affirmative answer on questions 8 - 17. If the received number is in limits 4 - 7, the bank willingly will lend money to your company.

1. The loan is granted on reconstruction or modernization of part of the operating production.

2. Among participants of the project there are large Russian and foreign companies.

3. As providing on the credit highly liquid securities and the other fast-realized pledges are offered. At the same time mortgage cost is comparable to the cost of potential obligations for the credit, including percent.

4. Existence confirmed and accepted for the project at the cost and terms of a source of financing.

5. The client realizing the project has long history of relationship with this bank.

6. The client or participants - guarantors are ready to pay from other sources percent for use of a credit product at an investment stage finansirovaniye.

7. The client or the main guarantors have the financial statements confirmed with the well-known auditor company.

8. The project is realized in the region of the increased political instability.

9. The project is dangerous to environment.

10. The client had non-return cases (untimely return) of the credits to any bank within the last five years, considering of date of the application for granting the credit.

11. The client has arrears on payments in budgets, at the client is open account of the defaulter .

12. The bank is offered to provide more than 70% of volume of the required financing of the project.

13. The share of own enterprise assets in the amount of financing of non-current assets of the project makes less than 15%.

14. The client participates in arbitration or trial, or on it claims are submitted to relevant authorities.

15. The project assumes financing scientific, engineering and is skilled - design developments (Research and development) or introduction in production of essentially new developments, technologies and the equipment.

16. Any information provided by the enterprise is obviously distorted.

17. The team realizing the project has no know-how or experience of independent commercial activity, or the available experience does not allow to expect that the project will effectively cope.