Rus Articles Journal

Economy of the USSR in the years of war - Russia

the Victory of the Soviet Union in Patriotic war would be inconceivable without dedicated titanic work of workers and peasants, engineers and designers, full devotion of the leading scientists and the culture mobilizing the Soviet people for defeat of an aggressor.

Loss of considerable part of economic potential and a transfer of thousands of industrial enterprises on the country East, huge destructions and human losses in a national economy brought in the beginning of war to sharp reduction of industrial production that was especially felt in defensive branches. By the end of 1941 the volume of gross output of the industry of the USSR decreased more than twice. In these conditions the country leaders took extremely drastic measures on strengthening of the Soviet hinterland. From the very beginning of fascist aggression mass mobilization of the civilian population on the labor front began to be carried out.

In April, 1942. mobilization extended also to villagers. These measures first of all concerned women and teenagers. So, in 1942 more than a half all occupied in a national economy made women. One of the most difficult was the problem of qualified personnel. The evacuated enterprises had no more than 30% of workers and experts therefore in December, 1941 the plan of preparation calculated on training at short-term courses and as a brigade apprenticeship about 400 thousand people was developed, and all in 1942 nearly 4,4 million people were prepared - Nevertheless number working was reduced in comparison with 1940 from 33,9 million to 18,4 million people in 1942

the Major task providing field army with arms and military equipment was. At the beginning of war in result of huge losses the Soviet aircraft was considerably weakened. In this regard sharp increase in release of new warplanes was required.

the Tank industry developed a mass production of fighting vehicles of new types. Considerable efforts workers and engineers applied

for increase in release of the weapon and ammunition which lack was especially notable on fronts.

However until the end of 1941 requirements of army and fleet for the weapon and military equipment were satisfied far not completely. Release of planes, tanks and other military equipment required a lot of high-quality steel. Due to the transfer of the defensive industry and to Western Siberia it was necessary to change technology and system of the organization of production to the Urals at the majority of steel works. The Urals became the main smithy of the defensive industry of the country.

With loss of Donbass and coal areas of the Rostov region sharply increased shortage of coal.

The great losses in the years of war were caused to agriculture. Despite efforts of toilers of agriculture in 1941 preparations of grain and other production were sharply reduced. The main food and a source of raw materials became east and Hugo - east regions of the country: The Volga region, Siberia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia and though there is a lot of difficulties. As a result of the held extraordinary events already the Soviet Union disposed to the middle of 1942 the coped military economy providing production of military production in escalating sizes, and since 1943 the general rise of production began.

Considerably the national income, the state budget, production of the industry, transport goods turnover increased. In 1943 modernization of army and fleet the newest samples of military equipment which share reached accelerated: in shooting arms of 42,3%, in artillery - 83, in armored arms - more than 80 and in aircraft - 67%.

Military production in the USSR reached a culmination point in 1944. Its high level was based on the strong base of continuous development of the leading branches of the heavy industry. Growth of production happened due to more effective use of capacities of the operating enterprises, input in a system new and restoration of plants and factories in cleared regions. Then production of nonferrous metallurgy, chemical industry, mechanical engineering and metal working, including production of arms and ammunition, considerably exceeded pre-war level. Production of agriculture, capital investment and retail commodity turnover increased also in comparison with 1943.

An important role in production of the heavy industry was played by east regions of the country. At the same time production of metal in the center and in the south of the country accrued. As a result in 1945 it was melted steel almost twice more, than in 1943. Especially production of hire, special staly and non-ferrous metals increased. Extended toplivno - power supply sources. Coal mining approached pre-war level.

Experience of military years convincingly proved that the command manufacturing execution system which developed on the eve of war had great opportunities for mobilization of economic capacity of the country. Flexibility and maneuverability in combination with rigid repressive manufacturing execution system and shots were characteristic of it.