Why put tattoos in the ancient time?In the XVIII-XIX centuries the British seamen represented on the backs huge crucifixions in hope that it will protect them from the corporal punishments which were widely practicing in the English fleet. At Arabs the tattoo reckoned with quotes from the Koran as the most reliable protective mascot. In all the given examples the tattoo, anyway, raised the social status of her owner. But in certain cases it served also as punishment. In the Japanese province Chukudzen of Edo`s period (1603 - 1867) as a penalty for the first crime put to robbers the horizontal line through a forehead, for the second - the arc-shaped, and for the third - one more. As a result the composition making INU hieroglyph - " turned out; dog “.
In ancient China the tattoo on a face was one of Five Classical Punishments too. Also marked slaves and prisoners of war, complicating it escape and facilitating their identification. Both Greeks, and Romans used a tattoo for the similar purposes, and the Spanish konkvistador continued this practice in Mexico and Nicaragua. In our century, during World War I, in Britain a tattoo “ D “ marked deserters, in Germany - beat out numbers to the victims of concentration camps and what to hide, at us the same practiced in the Union in regime camps... And in ancient Europe tattoos were in the general use among Greeks and Gauls, Britons and Thracians, Germans and Slavs.
To Praslavyana, our ancestors, for drawing tattoos used clay stamps or the seals - pintader. This peculiar the press with elements of an ornament allowed to cover all body with continuous Rombo - the meandrovy carpet pattern extremely necessary in magic rituals of an ancient cult of fertility.
Unfortunately, with distribution of Christianity the custom of a tattoo began to be eradicated ruthlessly as a component of pagan rites, and practically died away. Especially as in the Old Testament it is told clearly: “ For the sake of the dead do not do lots on your body and do not pin on yourself letters “. The ban was so severe that the tattoo did not practice among Europeans up to the 18th century. But, on a twist of fate when Christian missionaries went in the distant countries to turn into the belief “ wild “ tribes, seamen from their ships got smart tattoos for memory of travel there.
The notorious captain James Cook made the most powerful contribution to revival of tattoos in Europe. Having returned from swimming in 1769, it brought with Tahiti not only the word “ tatoo “ but also “ Great Omai “ entirely the istatuirovanny Polynesian who became sensation - the first a live tattoo - gallery. And soon any representation respecting itself, a fair or vagrant circus did not do without participation “ notable savage “.
By the end of the 19th century the fashion on natives fell down, instead of them Americans and Europeans began to speak at fairs. For example, certain lady Viola sported portraits of six American presidents, Charlie Chaplin and many other celebrities, causing delights of crowd of our century... But, though inhabitants also liked to take a look at the decorated circus actors, they did not hurry to be tattooed at all. It was the privilege of seamen, miners, founders and others similar “ labor unions “ using tattoo as a symbol of a brotherhood, solidarity, fidelity to traditions. Modern popularity of a tattoo in the West is obliged to much of
At the same time, they in the answer for creative stagnation in the western tattoo of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th century. The poor imagination and doubtful art taste of main customers led to restriction of a tattoo - “ repertoire “ sea subject, trite sentimentalshchina and banal aphorisms. As it is sad, the fact remains - the civilization reduced ancient art to the level of cheap consumer goods. Lack of demand for worthy production discouraged tattooers, deprived of incentive to creativity and new stylistic developments. And then, in 1891, American O`Reilly invented the electric tattoo machine which replaced various self-made tools and devices.
But even technical progress did not put business in motion. All first half of the 20th century and Europe and America went with a standard set of plain basten pictures. And only thanks to powerful splash in youth culture 50 - 60 - x years there was a new generation of tattooers, creative ambitions and which courageous experiments brought a tattoo to the art level again. They widely borrowed traditional images of other cultures - the Far East, Polynesia, the American Indians, - creating fascinating hybrids, new styles, schools and the directions.
So the new, present stage thousand-year - stories which, undoubtedly, deserves the separate detailed story began a tattoo.