What do we know about tattoo history?Are hard to say when the person for the first time applied drawing on the skin. But it is for certain known that history of a tattoo contains not less than 60 000 years. The most ancient tattoos are found at excavation of the Egyptian pyramids. To mummies about four thousand years, but drawings on the dried skin are well distinguishable.
However there was a tattoo much earlier - at a primitive-communal system. She served not only ornament, but also is familiar to the tribe, sorts, a totem, specified social accessory of her owner, but also, was allocated with a certain magic force.
The reasons of emergence of custom of a tattoo are not absolutely clear too. According to one theory - it is logical progress from the natural injuries of skin which are incidentally received by people of the Stone Age. Wounds and bruises merged in the fancy scars distinguishing their carrier from tribespeople in a favorable side as brave soldier and successful hunter. Over time primitive families expanded, united in small organized communities and the marks having specific value within a certain public group were already specially applied on skin. There was it at the end of Ice Age...
Historical roots, a tattoo are deep - the geography is not less impressive. Different types of tattoos practiced at the white-skinned people of the whole world, and at black were replaced with scarring. All were tattooed - the different tribes of Europe and Asia, Indians of North and South America and, of course, inhabitants of Oceania. Indian tribes of Indonesia and Polynesia where practice of a tattoo continuously passes from father to son, serve as the best anthropological proof of the social importance of tattoos. Nearly all aspects of life of these people are connected with a tattoo - from the birth to death, - and, of course, there is no such part of a body at which the local artist would not work.
The person - always on a look. Therefore the person is decorated first of all. Tribes of Maori from New Zealand carry on faces masklike tattoos - Moko. These surprising artful designs of patterns serve as both a constant fighting coloring, and an indicator of valor and social standing of their owners. On local customs if the died soldier on a face had Moko`s mask, he received the highest honor - his head was cut off and stored as a tribe relic. And corpses of not painted soldiers left on worry to wild animals.
Moko`s samples are so individual that were often used as the personal signature or fingerprints. At the beginning of the last century, having sold the lands to the English missionaries, the major, signing “ bill of sale “ carefully represented the exact copy of the mask of Moko. Women Japanese an ancient nationality of the Ainu a tattoo on a face designated the marital status. On lips, cheeks and centuries it was possible to determine by patterns whether the woman and how many at her children is married. And at other people the abundance of patterns on a body of the woman symbolized her endurance and fertility. And some places the situation with female tattoos reached excessively: on Nukuro`s atoll of the children born by not tattooed women killed at the birth.
The tattoo is connected also with so-called “ transitional “ ceremonies, whether it be dedication of the young man in mature men or resettlement from this life in a next world. For example, tribes diak from the island of Borneo believed that in local paradise - Apo - Kezio-everything gains the new qualities opposite to terrestrial: light becomes dark, sweet - bitter etc. therefore inventive and provident diakets were tattooed in the most dark shades. Having changed after death, tattoos became light and shining, and this light was enough safely to spend their owner through a dark abyss between the earth and Apo - Kezio.
Besides, at the different people of a tattoo were allocated with the most various magic properties: children were preserved against parental anger, adults were protected in fight and on hunting, old men were stored from diseases.