So it happened on the Chernobyl NPP?Already 21 years passed since the Chernobyl tragedy, but also still there is no completely reasonable, internally consistent scenario of an event on April 26, 1986.
There are more than 100 versions of how there was this technogenic accident. The present article about circumstances of accident is based on the objective, documentary confirmed data.
the Accelerated development of nuclear power was caused by general plans of development of the USSR and conviction in a possibility of creation of nuclear reactors with an unlimited single power. In December, 1964 the technical offer of RBMK - 1000 is developed, and in 1973 the first block of the Leningrad NPP is launched. Soon academicians A. Alexandrov and N. Dollezhal offered RBMK - 1500, RBMK - 2000, to RBMK - 2400, RBMK - 3600, that is reactors of big power. According to the academician N. Dollezhal, “ the future of reactor building is connected with essential increase of power of RBMK " reactors;.
Mass construction of blocks with RBMK reactors began without creation of appropriate scientific and experimental base, without deep studying and justification of many technical questions. The operating NPPs, including and Chernobyl, turned into grounds for numerous experiments, for verification of new technical offers and continuous changes in design decisions.
the Basic mistake of authors of RBMK concerning the maximum single power of the reactor was found in the first years of operation of RBMK - 1000. Especially it was shown on the Chernobyl NPP. On all its blocks approach to design indicators of electricity generation caused formation of emergencies and unplanned stops of reactors. But authors of RBMK and the Ministry of Energy of the USSR did not notice this dangerous tendency and did not react to it.
Moreover, spring of 1985. changes which allowed to increase thermal power 1 - go and 2 - go blocks to 105% of rated power (107% design), and 3 - go and 4 - go blocks - to 102% of rated power (104% design) were made to Production schedules of the CNPP.
the Plan of electricity generation for 1986 was approved taking into account these changes. At the general thermal power of 13248 MW (105,5% of design and 103,5% of nominal) the station had to develop more than 29 billion kW of electric energy with efficiency of power 0,97.
After accident a mistake in determination of the maximum single power of RBMK reactors was recognized at the highest level. The politburo of the former Central Committee of CPSU obliged nuclear department “ to carefully prove the maximum single power of power units “.
After long silence the chief designer of the RBMK reactor - 1000 the academician N. Dollezhal in 1995 stated the opinion of causes of accident. In his opinion, hydrodynamic process only caused “ the beginning and development of destruction of system which is called “ balance - power - the heat sink “. It is clear, that this system characterizes all block in general, but not a separate element or action of personnel. After accident on the CNPP in Russia the power of the operating RBMK reactors was reduced to 70% nominal.
In April, 1986 on the Chernobyl NPP was planned a stop for average repair of the power unit No. 4. According to requirements of Rules of technical operation the big complex of regular works with detection of shortcomings of the equipment and systems needed to be executed in the course of a stop of this power unit. But, except regular, planned to carry out three more tests which according to contents can be considered experimental, namely: research of energy release in an active zone of the reactor (the developer and the performer - NIKIET institute); experiment with vybegy TG turbogenerator - 8 in the mode of loading of own needs of the block No. 4 (the developer of the mode - NIKIET institute; the developer of the block of excitement of the generator - Gidroproyekt institute; the developer of an electric circuit - Dontekhenergo; plant - producer of the block of excitement of the generator - " plant; Electric power “ Leningrad; developers of the program - Dontekhenergo and the CNPP); test of new system of emergency cooling of the reactor air (the developer and the performer - NIKIET).
So, in April, 1986 prepared not only for repair of the block No. 4, but also to three absolutely different in maintenance, difficult and responsible experiments. As of April 24, 1986 the CNPP was not prepared for these works what the director of station notified the management of the Ministry of Energy on. Nevertheless, from the ministry the order arrived to begin tests in 00 h 00 min. on April 25, 1986. Preparation for tests in an active zone of the reactor was finished with 23. 04. 86 g. Condition of an active zone for this time, in comparison with a state on 01. 04. 86 g, significantly changed. Such changes happened not incidentally, and as a result of well planned, in advance realized actions.
In 00 h 00 min. 25. 04. 86 g began performance of regular and non-staff works. The personnel had no program of works in an active zone of the reactor though the program of tests of system of emergency cooling and the program of a vybeg of a turbogenerator of TG - 8 were transferred by air to personnel.
the Official version and the chronology of events corresponding to it represent work on April 25 and 26, 1986 on the block No. 4 only as preparation for experiment with vybegy TG - 8 which ended with accident with explosion.
Actual data demonstrate that the situation was other. Tests of turbogenerators began in 4 h 14 min. 25. 04. 86 g. Tests of TG - 7 in 12 h 36 min. were finished, works on TG - 8 began. For this time the head works made the important decision:
1) vybeg TG - 8 to postpone for indefinite time, performers (crew - Dontekhenergo) to release on rest with a condition to call on the block No. 4 22 h
2) and tests of system of cooling of the reactor to transfer measurements in an active zone next day, also to release performers (experts of NIKIET) in hotel till the morning.
the decision - to stop the power unit No. 1 was at the same time made. But for part of personnel to declare on April 26 and 27 in the working days (in connection with
not planned stop of turbine shop No. 1). The reasons of this decision demand additional research.
Regular works were continued according to the schedule. By the end of the third change (24 h is 00 min. old) the tasks concerning turbine shop were executed, except tests of TG - 8 in the mode of idling and in the mode of a free vybeg. The night shift began in the conditions of a transition period - further deceleration of power of the reactor.
Comparison of chronology of events on which the official version is based and the actual chronology documented demonstrates existence of the essential distinctions having basic value for the analysis.
the Data recorded on the oscillogram show that experiment with vybegy ended in 01 h 19 min. 34,5 sec. Therefore, the version about
its beginning in 01 h 23 min. 04 sec. - is wrong, as well as the statement that it is the main cause of accident extremely improbable combination of actions of personnel.
Sharp changes of parameters of the power unit in 01 h 23 min. 38 sec. and emergence then AZ signal - 5 were unclear and unexpected for personnel. After 01 h 23 min. 40 sec. with active emergency process which parameters and consequences are unknown as in 01 h 23 min. 48 sec. the " system was disconnected began; ROCK “ (or, perhaps, records of devices were lost).
the Scenario of events on power units No. 4 and No. 3 of 01 h 23 min. 48 sec. 26. 04. 86 g to 04 h 30 min. 27. 04. 86 g it is restored in logical model when performing the second stage of researches and developments on this subject. The available data allow to consider that explosions in the night of April 26 did not lead to global destruction of the power unit No. 4 and catastrophic radiation pollution of blocks and the territory of station. And firefighters of a consequence of explosions were localized and partially liquidated by incredible efforts of personnel of station.
Accident happened after 21 h 30 min. 26. 04. 86 g. On the fourth power unit in the reactor a series of explosions of huge power which lasted to 4 - x o`clock in the morning on April 27 began. The power unit No. 4 and its systems were completely destroyed. Radiation level on the CNPP and within an hour increased in Pripyat in 10 and more times. The reasons of the second series of explosions are connected only with physical and design features of RBMK reactors and any relation before actions of operation personnel have no.
Documentary confirmed denial of the official version that “ the prime cause of accident is absolutely improbable combination of violations of an order and the mode of operation allowed by power unit personnel “ - the argument sufficient for full rehabilitation of collective of the Chernobyl NPP and its management.
Should emphasize that after accident on the CNPP practically all nuclear fuel of 190 tons - was thrown out from the reactor and it is sprayed not only in the territory of station, and is far beyond its limits including outside Ukraine. The weight which remained from above is filled up with sand, dolomite and other bulks, by estimates of experts, the bulk (toplivovmestimy weight) has a dose of radiation from 1,0 to 10,0 P / hour, and in certain places - from 500 to 800 P / hour. For last period which passed after accident in the cylinder 4 - go the power unit it was formed so-called
“ elephant leg “ - vitreous radioactive firm weight. In the sarcophagus, as we know, there is still some quantity of the remains of radiation dust, and through cracks in the sarcophagus, radioactive water follows. The Chernobyl NPP is stopped upon the demand of MEGATE. All combined generated an array of problems around Chernobyl. They require the urgent solution, and in the decision - participations of the highest officials of Ukraine.
We consider that this object it is necessary to take the states under control and to return to life Minchernobyl of Ukraine. Such very emergency and difficult in fact technical solutions the object has to have the owner responsible for everything that there occurs today and to take the responsibility that needs to be made in the next years to turn this object into ecologically safe. And danger which is concealed by object of the CNPP is not only a problem of Ukraine with which to it independently not to cope, and a problem of all world community. Radiation, as we know, has property to extend to long distances and is capable to bring catastrophic consequences for life of all mankind. Therefore both IAEA, and the foreign governments have to treat with all responsibility to the solution of complex technical problems on transformation of object into ecologically safe.
It is known that now is available the project of a construction of a new sarcophagus, so-called safe konfayment, the problem of burial
of nuclear waste and their processing is particularly acute. And in capacities which will be practically on the Earth`s surface. And all this concerns the territory and
of object of the CNPP. As we know, all problems are tried to be solved unofficially, without attraction of several independent examinations (expert groups) of
of structure of highly skilled scientists and experts, including physicists, biologists, physicians, builders for objective and qualified
of an assessment of projects and consequences at their realization. Some Ukrainian organizations and officials try not to proekspertirovat objectively and on
due scientifically - a technological level the offered projects, and in every possible way lobby their early realization. Obviously, for some bribe, differently with what to explain these their actions. We consider that in structure of such independent commissions of experts can and scientists and experts of other countries, including Russia, Japan, that is those countries which are not directly involved in development and providing various projects have to be involved.
We live in a century of terrorism. We already know terrible examples of acts of terrorism in the territory of the USA, the state which, apparently, has all means of protection from terrorists. Construction of storages on the Earth`s surface as it is planned in the territory of the CNPP, is very dangerous to waste of the fulfilled nuclear fuel from the technical point of view (influence of the most various factors and time), and the most important - they are not protected from acts of terrorism. Happen that (God forbid!) - and then not only Ukraine, but also all east, central and western parts of Europe can be turned into lifeless space, and life in this blossoming territory - is destroyed by radiation. What examination can allow building of these dangerous objects?
Considering huge responsibility for the made decisions on the CNPP and the main thing - for their consequences - we address the country leaders with the offer to create Interdepartmental scientifically - the technical commission with participation of representatives of governmental bodies, People`s Deputies of Ukraine, scientists and experts.
needs to create also several independent examinations on this subject and thus to take the solution of the Chernobyl problems under vigilant control including the public, especially that, as for decision-making and their realization. The solution of problems of Chernobyl demands big money therefore it is impossible to allow people who consider as the main goal " to this problem; to tear off to itself it is more “. Suggests conclusions which can be made of practice of last years an idea that such destiny comprehended that money which were allocated with Ukraine, the foreign organizations and the governments for mitigation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It is also necessary to emphasize that the construction of the konfayment offered by foreign firms and the organizations raises big doubts at many Ukrainian scientists and experts. Certainly, there are also another, more qualified technical solutions proposed by the Ukrainian scientists and experts (including NIISK). But - let`s everything do the main thing publicly! Such decisions about which we speak have to pass not one independent examination and only after that be realized. And, as, along with foreign projects, commissions of experts have to consider an indispensable condition in the most attentive way and projects of domestic scientists and experts. As for storages of nuclear waste, it is a question not from simple too, and momentary unqualified decisions and statements of some high-ranking officials as as it is necessary to do immediately, cause big concern in society. Often also the opinion of independent scientists, experts - professionals, as well as leading research institute - the scientific research institute of building constructions having highly professional shots of scientists and experts is not considered.
Decisions on a problem should be made only after the careful and qualified examination and, certainly, it is public with an extensive discussion scientific community of Ukraine.