What interesting is known of cornflowers?When will come to naught nights and spacious June days will blow softly to a zharynye, along a grain floor blue cornflowers will be lit. Azure sparks they blink and on steam to a wedge, and among magnificent clovers where got also nezvanno, and on roadsides of country paths.
There are no words, the blue cornflower is affectionate: blossoms vporyad with rye, and rassevat seeds to a kosovitsa. With winter cereals it sprouts and takes roots till fall, with summer - ascends and becomes stronger in the spring. The winter cornflower a kustist, rosl is also extremely prolific - from each plant dissipates on 2,5 thousand seeds of excellent viability: summer a rastenyitsa sickly, with smaller heads, though they rassevat on some honeycombs thin, flying a semyanok.
The cornflower came to us together with rye and since then jealously accompanies this mighty cereal. Where did not know rye, did not know also about cornflowers. Cornflowers exhaust and suppress crops. They exasperate and cattle-farmers: tenacious semyanka spoil sheep wool, rough rough baskets peel mucous a mouth at cows, and horses and even less so have from cornflowers a diarrhea, and even get paralysis …
I only knowing weaknesses of a cornflower, it is possible to reduce it from fields and meadows. One of weaknesses are an addiction of a cornflower to poor, sandy, easily permeable lands. So, the soil which is well filled with fertilizers - the improper environment for reproduction of a weed. Careful purification of sowing material, an opakhivaniye of roadsides of fields, a boronovaniye of shoots, and even a vypalivaniye will also help to the sower to get rid of the uninvited guest of grain fields.
And now we will look at a blue cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) with the naturalist`s eyes. It is an annual grass with the dryish single small stalks covered with a gray fluffy voylochok. To a top stalks branch. Leaves are narrow, sbezhisty, are similar to tiny oars. Flowers are collected in a basket - a disk with a thick shchetinisty bed, strengthened on a long leafless leg. District flowers in a disk fruitless, median - oboyepola, by quantity exceed barren flowers twice.
A blue cornflower - a fine melliferous herb. Neither bees, nor bumblebees will rush by its smiling flowers. In use this cornflower went for production of paints: from extreme, reed flowers by means of alum received blue, and from tubular - blue paints. In former time greengroceries traded also in cornflower-blue vinegar. But most of all blue cornflower was remembered as decoration of birthday sheaves. The Russian peasants birthday called the first sheaf, him are that reapers and brought home with songs. This sheaf intertwined with cornflowers long flaunted in a forward corner.
In national doctoring moistened with cornflower-blue flowers decoction the inflamed eyes. In the ancient botanical management and it is told: cornflower-blue " water; it is esteemed useful in usual diseases and dacryagogue “. Broth was drunk “ from heartbeat, blockages of a liver and a zheltyanitsa “. In modern medicine cornflower flowers in the form of infusion apply as diuretic and zhelchegonny means.
Residents of Voronezh hanged out cornflower-blue wreaths in log huts that crickets were not found. Poured dried flowers and in tobacco. In gardens from olden days sow cornflowers as beautiful, lovely to plant heart. Besides blue forms are removed violet, pink, purple and even white.
There are a lot of nicknames at a blue cornflower: a voloshka, a loskutnitsa, a sinovnik, blue, blavat, butterflies, a vasilchik, rzhevy color, a pugovnik (heads are similar to buttons). The scientific name of a blue cornflower is connected with two ancient legends. “ Tsentaurea “ - the cornflower inherited on behalf of Chiron`s centaur - a mythological being with a trunk of a horse and the head of the bearded person. This centaur as if was famous for ability to treat herbs. And when Hercules the poisoned arrow cruelly wounded Chiron, the centaur healed the wound a blue cornflower. So the plant became known as a centaur flower, or a Centaur: etymologically ascends to Greek “ kentauros “ - pricking bulls. “ Tsianus “ - the cornflower received by the name of young men which was so captivated by its beauty that began to put on only in Xing and spent all the time in the field behind weaving of wreaths and garlands. In a literal translation with Latin “ tsianus “ - blue.
Cornflowers in some relationship about mother - and - the stepmother, dandelions, camomiles, sunflower. All of them belong to one extensive family of slozhnotsvetny. The sort of cornflowers is not poor at all, in it contain 530 types, from them 178 it is revealed within our country. Especially there are a lot of cornflowers in the Caucasus (62 look).
What cornflowers, except blue, meet, say, in Moscow area? Let`s call only the most widespread: meadow, Phrygian and rough. A meadow cornflower - in meter height, perennial. At liberty blossoms only at six-year age. Lilovo - purple flowers settle down large heads on tops of a stalk and on the ends of lateral branches. Quite often heads flock on two - three, and then the heavy stalk looks almost a bouquet. Stalks stand directly or slightly rising from the earth; green, furrowed. Ligneous roots cords disperse in the parties. Radical leaves oval, with teeth or cuts; on a stalk - narrow, lantsetny. Blossoms from a half of June and until the end of summer.
The meadow cornflower gravitates to rather poor soils of waterless valleys, zakustarenny meadows and cuttings down. On a haymaking brings a lot of trouble upon mowers: any minute, you will tear off about it a braid or you vyshcherbit a sting. When collecting herbs it is undesirable. In the people the gorkusha, the dog head, the Small dedovnik, an alarm, a rannik, a field rose, suzik, adodiya has a reputation as a golovnik. Excellent melliferous herb. From leaves and a stalk received yellow paint. Believed that the fresh grass attached to legs appeases an ache.
And here one more cornflower - Phrygian. Article and a grubostebelnost it bears to a cornflower meadow a strong resemblance. Only and the that flowers the pink and wider jagged leaves. Lives on edges, forest mowings, among bushes. It is plentiful under the northern sky. Baskets - on the ends of stalks and lateral branches. The part of them is not developed and resembles pine shishechka superficially.
On a dry meadow, a deposit and lengthways the meeting with a cornflower rough is expensively not excluded. Growth of this perennial - to 120 centimeters, at the same length is buried a thick rod root. Flowers of a rough cornflower of an iskrasn - yellow. Baskets before blooming round, sit on long legs on the ends of low-branchy stalks. Leaves are peristorassechenny, lower large and on scapes. Seed efficiency of a rough cornflower is huge: by the end of summer brings up to 7 thousand seeds. Economic value, except that melliferous herb, purely fodder. In August when the set of herbs grows scanty, it is quite tolerably eaten by cows. Collected seeds give to hens. The rough cornflower received the name from - for rigid the hairs covering all plant. Modern medicine does not admit curative.