How to achieve the objectives in negotiations?you get a job or try to agree with the taxi driver about the price. Two lawyers try to solve a contentious case according to the section of property of clients. Group of the trading companies divide a sales market. The city official meets representatives of public transport with the purpose to prevent a strike. All this negotiations.
Though all life also consists of continuous negotiations, their message “ professionally “ very few people are able. So they are negotiations? What they consist of?
As well as all whole, any negotiations have the internal structure - maintaining stages:
Definition “ rules of the game “.
Development of the scenario.
Conducting bargaining. Concessions.
Completion of negotiations.
Who is familiar with technicians of sales, can exclaim that negotiating stages almost completely coincide with stages of sales. Also will draw the wrong conclusion: “ Any negotiations are reduced to sale “. It will be more correct to tell that sale is a kind of negotiations.
The main difference of negotiations from sale are the purposes. On sale a main objective - to sell goods. The seller can change several the offer, but the purpose remains former - simple “ yes “ on the offer to buy goods.
Negotiations assume that two persons will discuss a subject together. During discussion of the purpose can change depending on what will be told by the opposite side. Therefore the negotiator has to have not one task set for itself, and a little that will allow to maneuver and try to obtain success.
Let`s get acquainted with stages of effective negotiations closer.
1. Planning of negotiations
At this stage the most important - to formulate for itself the purposes. Without the accurate purpose discussion will very quickly leave aside, thanks to the distracting tricks of the opposite side shifting focus from the main subject of discussion to minor. Therefore the negotiator has to define the purposes in advance, having broken them on three groups:
1. Perspective purposes.
2. Probable purposes.
3. Obligatory purposes.
The perspective purposes - those which you want to reach ideally.
the Probable purposes - less achievable, but nevertheless very desirable.
the Obligatory purposes - those which have to be anyway reached.
At this stage of negotiations it is also very important to analyse possible concessions of the opposite side, and also to prepare responses to probable objections.
2. Contact establishment - creation of the atmosphere of trust. On this subject can be spoken to
much and long. There is a wish to tell about one of the main qualities - ability to empathize.
Empathy - ability to understand and accept “ inner world “ interlocutor. Ability to empathize is an ability to see world around eyes of the interlocutor. If the negotiator is capable to empathize sincerely, then he will be able to create the atmosphere in which at the opponent the impression is made that it is understood and sympathize with it.
If you develop in yourself such quality as ability to empathize, then will be able to convince others, and the probability of your personal success will be very high.
3. Definition “ rules of the game “
Before taking some steps, it is necessary to agree with the interlocutor about how there will take place your negotiations: in what form that what will follow and, the most important, what criteria will be used and who will establish them.
This stage will set the tone for all negotiations, and in case of some misunderstanding or, especially, the conflict, surely stop any talk come back anew to pronunciation “ rules of the game “ which you established.
4. The partner`s assessment
At this stage of negotiations it is important to b to determine by
key requirements and an initial position of the opposite side, to probe to what concessions it can go.
The main tool at this stage is the technology of determination of open questions and ability to listen.
All questions can conditionally be broken into two groups: opened and closed. Open questions effectively stimulate discussion and demand the developed answers. The closed questions (demanding terse answers) worsen negotiations, lead to aggressive and negative reaction.
In advance prepared questions will help you to gather the mass of information on needs of the opponent, his system of values and to understand to what concessions he is ready to go.
5. Development of the scenario
If to photograph negotiations on video, then will turn out the movie. Negotiators will be actors in this movie. As well as any other, our movie has the scenario. Such scenario is called negotiation.
The negotiator`s task - even prior to conversation to develop several scenarios of future negotiations. During establishment of contact and an assessment of the opponent, you have to make a choice of the scenario, and at this stage to start it.
6. Conducting bargaining. Concessions Quite often this stage call
“ big ESLI “ For example: “ If you agree with X, then I will agree with Y “. Following the " method; if …, then … “ both parties move ahead on the way of compromises to the final agreement. At such tactics of the party feel that both parties are the winner. It is also ability to do concessions. If your interlocutor during negotiations offered you a concession, then he waits for the same actions and from you, is the main term of negotiations.
7. Completion of negotiations When all problems are resolved by
, sum up the result of those positions on which you reached the agreement, and finish the transaction. In all negotiations practice of written confirmation of all details in order to avoid any misunderstanding and an opportunity to hear the phrase well proved: “ Yes, there is one more small detail … " here;.
Ability to successfully conduct negotiations can be developed, the main thing - not to be afraid to study. And the chief teacher is your own negotiation practice.