Rus Articles Journal

How necessary things were invented? Part 2

the Needle

History of sewing contains already more than 20 thousand years. Primitive people pierced skins with prehistoric similarity of a pricker from thorns or the squared stones, through openings passed sinews of animals, and thus constructed to themselves " suit;.

the Very first needles with an ear made of stones, bones or horns of animals were found in territories of modern Western Europe and Central Asia there are about 17 thousand years ago. In Africa as needles served thick veins of palm leaves to which the threads made also of plants became attached.

It is considered that the first steel needle was made in China. In the same place, in the 3rd century B.C., thought up a thimble. The tribes inhabiting Mauritania (in the ancient time area on North - the West of Africa, the western part of the territory of modern Algeria and east part of the territory of modern Morocco), informed of these inventions the West.

Mass production of needles began only in the 14th century in Nuremberg, and then and in England. The very first needle by means of the mechanized production was made in 1785.

Scissors

of the First great-grandfather modern scissors found in ruins of Ancient Egypt. These scissors made of an integral piece of metal, but not of two crossed edges are dated the 16th century B.C. And scissors in the form in which they are known now, invented Leonardo da Vinci`s .

A heel

the First heels appeared at east riders in the 12th century, however it was difficult to call them heels, in general. It were certain nashlepk which served for very practical purposes: men nailed them to shoes that the leg strong kept in a stirrup at jump. And here who and when invented the real heel, it is precisely unknown, however it is considered to be that there was it in the 17th century in Spain from an easy hand of masters from the city of Cordoba.

They developed structure and a design of a heel which main forms they were mown inside and French - with waist in the middle. During a rococo era the heel got over closer to the center of a shoe, thereby as if reducing a leg. Over time the form of a heel underwent various changes: from high heels - liqueur glasses to wide square which thought up especially for the girls dancing a twist.

I, at last, in 1950 the Italian fashion designer Salvatore Ferragamo invented the well-known hairpin: as a support for a heel he offered a long steel core - a stiletto.

A toothbrush

ancient Egyptians cared For hygiene of an oral cavity for three thousand years B.C.: the prototypes of toothbrushes made of branches of trees with the fluffed-up ends were found in their sarcophagi. But the Chinese emperor who built the first brush in 1498 is considered the primogenitor of modern brushes. The bristle of the Chinese toothbrushes was made of hair from a nape of the Siberian wild boar, and handles were either from a tree, or from a bone of an animal. When in the 17th century this invention reached Europe where at that time it was not accepted to brush teeth, rigid hair of a boar was replaced with softer horse mane. Before clean Europeans used the toothpicks made of goose quills, and those who are richer, - from copper or silver or just wiped teeth with a rag.

Wool and a bristle of animals, in particular, of the same boar, was used by production of toothbrushes up to the XX century. In 1937 invented nylon, and since 1938 fibers of a brush began to do of it. However brushes animal origin continued to enjoy bigger popularity as were softer and did not scratch a gum, unlike artificial. The nylon bristle of toothbrushes became such soft as now, only in 1950.

Part 1

Part 3

To be continued - in the broadest sense. That is inventions promptly proceed!