Rus Articles Journal

How necessary things were invented? Part 1

the Wheel

Who when and why for the first time thought up a wheel - remains to one of the biggest mysteries of history. The most ancient wheel was found in the territory of Mesopotamia, and it was made about 55 centuries ago. Various freights were transported before by means of what is known now as the sledge.

On the Sumer pictogram of the 35th century BC similarity of the vehicle was for the first time represented: the sledge on wheels. Wheels at that time were the integral disks which are cut out from a tree.

the First wheels with spokes were invented on the peninsula Asia Minor (the most western peninsula of Asia, nowadays belongs to Turkey) in the 20th century BC, and in the same century came to Europe, China and India. Such wheels were used only in chariots for transportation of people, but in their Egypt began to apply also to freights.

The greatest distribution of a wheel and various vehicles received in Ancient Greece, and then and Rome. In America wheels and vehicles appeared only with arrival of Europeans there.

A spoon and a fork

Ancient Romans and Greeks, carrying on talk on fine, ate with hands. The Roman poet Ovidy taught them to eat with finger-tips and after food to wipe these fingers about bread. Later in Greece special gloves with rigid tips were put on hands. And in general, the very first prototypes of spoons became in 3000 years B.C. They were molded by

from clay or cut from bones or horns of animals, sea shells, fish bones and the heads, wood were also used. The very first silver spoons made in Russia in 998 by order of the prince Vladimir the Gorgeous Sunshine for its team. Spoons then were with the short handle and were held in hand.

Something similar to a modern fork, only with five, and at times and large number of cloves, appeared in Asia in the tenth century. In hundred years this invention came also to Europe, but the fork was widely adopted only by the 16th century: the sharp pricker by means of which pinned food and fir-trees was replaced with a fork with two cloves.

By the end of the 18th century practically in all countries of Europe a table knife with the sharp end gave way to the knife having the rounded-off edge. Need to pin pieces of food on a knife was not any more as this function was carried out by a fork.

A button

Ancient people instead of buttons connected pieces of the clothes thorns from plants, stones of animals and sticks. In Ancient Egypt buckles were already used or one piece of clothes was passed throughout the opening made in another or the ends just communicated.

Who exactly invented a button, it is unknown: one scientists incline that it were Greeks or Romans, others - that the button came from Asia. They were made mainly of an ivory. Buttons were widely adopted only in the 13th century. And almost till the 18th century were a sign of wealth and a notable origin: kings and the aristocracy were able to afford to order buttons from gold and silver. At the beginning of the 18th century of a button began to do of metal and copper, but almost until the end of the 19th century of a button were so expensive goods that they were altered from one clothes on another.

Laces It is quite strange

, but history for some reason did not keep a name of the genius who thought up laces, but in some way kept date when this event took place, - on March 27, 1790. This day in England there was the first lace for boots in the form of a string with metal tips on the ends which did not allow it to obtrepatsya and helped to pass a lace throughout openings on footwear. And here before emergence of this invention all footwear was clasped on buckles.

A hairbrush the Most ancient hairbrushes which inhabitants of Earth used can consider by

fish skeletons. It is unknown where and when the first hairbrush was made, but one of the most ancient crests was found at excavation in the territory of Ancient Rome. It was made of a wide bone of an animal with the handle and eight manually the cut-out cloves which were settling down at distance of 0,2 cm from each other. Subsequently hairbrushes were made also of a tree, corals, an ivory, a turtle armor and horns of various animals. This material for crests was used up to the middle of the 19th century.

In 1869 two brothers - Isaiah and John Hiatt - invented celluloid that completely changed production of hairbrushes. Elephants and turtles were rescued from elimination, and people received cheaper crests from the material externally very similar both on corals, and on an ivory, and on a tortoise shell.

A match

with What only in the ways people did not extract fire before emergence of matches. Turley the friend about the friend wooden surfaces, beat out a spark silicon, tried to catch a ray of sunlight through a glass piece. And when it managed to be made, carefully supported the burning coals in clay pots. And only at the end of the 18th century it became simpler to live - the French chemist Claude Bertholet by practical consideration received the substance called subsequently potassium chloride. So in Europe in 1805 matches - " appeared; makanka - thin splinters with the heads greased with potassium chloride which were lit after their obmakivaniye in solution by the concentrated chamois of acid.

To the invention of the first dry matches the world is obliged to the English chemist and the druggist John Walker. In 1827 he found out that if to apply mix from sulfide of antimony on a tip of a wooden stick, potassium chloride and arabic gum (it is such viscous liquid emitted by an acacia) and then to dry up all this business on air, then at friction of such match about an emery paper its head is quite easily lit. And consequently, need to drag with itself the vial of sulfuric acid disappears. Walker arranged small production of the matches which were packed into tin cases on 100 pieces, however did not earn big money on the invention. Besides these matches had an awful smell.

In 1830 19 - the summer French chemist Charles Soria invented the phosphoric matches consisting of mix of potassium chloride, phosphorus and glue. These in general easily ignited at friction about any firm surface, for example, a boot sole. Soria`s matches had no smell, however were unhealthy as white phosphorus is poisonous.

In 1855 the chemist Johan Lundstrom thought that red it is sometimes better, than white. The Swede applied red phosphorus on a surface of an emery paper outside of a small box and added the same phosphorus to structure of a head of a match. Thus, they did not do harm to health any more and were easily lit about in advance prepared surface.

At last, in 1889 Joshua Pyyusi invented a matchbox, however the patent for this invention was given to the American company Diamond Match Company which thought up just the same, but with incendiary a surface outside (at Pyyusi it settled down a box inside).

To Russia phosphoric matches were delivered from Europe in 1836 and were on sale on ruble silver for one hundred. And the first domestic factory on production of matches was constructed in St. Petersburg in 1837.

Part 2

Part 3