Rus Articles Journal

How there was an Internet?

In 1961 Leonard Kleynrok published the work devoted to package switching. Later this technology will become a key link practically of all networks. And then experts of DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) - Agencies of Perspective Research Projects of the Ministry of Defence of the USA became interested in it. Kleynrok`s idea was picked up by the interested people, and in 1965 Thomas Meryl together with Lawrence Roberts connected two computers which were in different states of the USA by means of phone line, having proved that the technology of package switching allows to create geographically distributed networks.

The essence of new technology consisted in splitting the transmitted data into so-called packages. The recipient`s address was appropriated to each package. Having these data, packages from different senders, consistently, one after another could be transferred on one communication channel, reaching the necessary addressee. Thus, several systems could work at the same time (in understanding of the user) by means of one communication channel.

Interest of DARPA was explained by a possibility of application of the developed technology in case of nuclear explosion. The distributed network did not need a certain central link without which it could not exist. On the contrary, the technology initially used standard phone lines and with ease and universality could be distributed on long geographical distances.

In August, 1968 Lawrence Robert and DARPA base the DARPNET network.

At the same time together with other researchers the specification of a new network is developed. By 1969 Stendfordsky scientifically - research institute, a then University of Utah and other higher education institutions joins this project.

Captured by ideas of cooperation, scientists quickly realized possibilities of a global network. Virtual conferences began to be organized, and in 1972 in the DARPNET network the electronic mail service and Telnet appear. One year later - FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

Thanks to introduction of e - mail in the existing network, scientists, engineers and military - the main users of DARPNET of that time - came to a new stage of development of the interpersonal relations. After a command line of the Unix operating system became possible to see the person. The service Telnet allowed to enter Unix session from the remote computer, a FTP provided easy file exchange.

Thanks to the open architecture, DARPNET connected various platforms and operating systems. Lack of any serious technological restrictions allowed to unite subnets with various topology in uniform complexes.

B was entered 1977 the TCP/IP protocol (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) which still serves as a link of different systems.

By the beginning of the seventieth the DARPNET network began to be called the Internet. Constantly developing, connecting the increasing number of users, according to the research company NUA, the Internet by 2000 united 407,1 million users.

However the Internet is obliged to the success not only a possibility of cross-platform exchange of information, but also development friendly to the simple user of technology of visualization of data.

of Work on introduction of a hypertext format of documents in the Internet began with the end 70 - x years. In 1991 the Gopher system urged to facilitate work with the command line Unix was developed. However the uniform standard of the description of submission of documents standard now was approved at the beginning of 90 - x.

Tim Berners - Li who took the initiative of creation of language of a hypertext marking for the first time developed the specification of the HTML language (HyperText Markup Language) and the program of visualization (browser) called by World Wide Web (WWW). Since then HTML " language; - the fact became the standard for submission of the text and mixed information in the Network. This language is based on SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) - the international standard of submission of text information.

To the middle of the ninetieth years the network begins to grow exponential. The people far from programming or science become its users. The Netscape firm lets out the triumphal Netscape Navigator which became for several years the most popular browser. All this

forces many firms, to the last not believing in prospects of the Internet, to look differently at the future. And in 1996 the leading producer of office software the Microsoft firm announces plans of integration of the ON with the Internet which became even more comprehensive over time and mentioned not only client applications, but also even tools for programs.

To estimate the potential of the Network not easy. Sometimes the consciousness refuses to perceive that two persons divided by tens of thousands of kilometers can smile each other, talk among themselves. And two are not presidents of superstates, but simple students.

The fact that it seemed fantastic fiction, today already the reality available to the mere mortal 10 years ago. Let`s wish success to those who work on the Internet today, developing and supporting him. And as the hero of one movie told: So we will drink for cybernetics!