Norbert Wiener. How one person changed the world?B 1948 the book which emergence not only caused huge interest in the world of science was issued, but also in many respects defined further development of a front line of scientific thought, and in the USSR provoked the beginning of powerful ideological campaign for exposure of bourgeois scientists - “ obscurantists “.
It is about the first fundamental work of American Norbert Wiener “ Cybernetics, or management and communication in an animal and the car “ where the provision on a community of laws which work in automatic control, the organization of production and in nervous system of the person was theoretically proved. This book was at once translated into several languages, caused many disputes in the scientific world. Under the influence of the ideas stated in the book there were many scientific directions and the mass of theoretical scientific works appeared.
Whom was a person who so strongly changed world around and, in principle, the given start to an era scientifically - technical revolution?
Norbert Wiener was born on November 26, 1894 in rather solid and well-founded Jewish family of natives of Russia, at the end of the nineteenth century moved to the USA.
The boy`s father, professor of Harvard university, practically right after the birth of the son began to test the latest educational and educational techniques on the child. The purpose - to make of the genius`s child!
It is necessary to tell at once, the positive result did not keep itself waiting long. Little Norbert very much early learned to read, and in 4 years the father provided a home library in his order. In 7 years the young child prodigy wrote the first scientific treatise on Darwinism. Besides biology, with pleasure read to Dante.
Whether it is worth saying that the young genius safely left secondary school at eleven-year age. In fourteen years prestigious Taft - college with honors finished, having received the bachelor`s degree. Then Harvard where in 17 years became the master of arts. In 18 years - the doctor of philosophy in the specialty “ mathematical logic “.
After Harvard, at nineteen-year age, it was invited to department of mathematics of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Soon, having got a grant for a trip to Europe, went to train in Cambridge at B. Russell and J. H. Hardy, and then at the Goettingen university at D. Gilbert.
Besides mathematics, the young man decided to test himself and in other spheres. For romantic pastimes with young contemporaries Norbert was too constraining. He tried out as the journalist, worked some time as the engineer at plant and even in pedagogical craft. But understood soon that its only thing, for the rest of life calling - mathematics.
Having come back home, he soon received department at the Massachusetts institute, wrote the mass of articles according to various sections of the higher mathematics, and at the same time became professor Garvardskogo, Goettingen, Braunovsky, Colombian and some other universities. The young scientist was full of creative plans and called this time the happiest years of the life.
In 1926 there were changes and in private life. Norbert married Margaret Engerman.
In 1920 - x years, having got acquainted with one of designers of computers, for the first time proved a number of fundamental requirements to such cars. In particular, the car needs to be supplied with the memory block where the operating signals and information obtained in the course of work would be postponed.
During World War II Winer developed new model of management of forces of antiaircraft defense. Without any computers he managed “ to teach “ to its homing on the purpose.
After war Norbert was fond of a question of development of self-training systems which became known under the term “ The Mouse in a labyrinth “. Present that the rodent (accustomed to the confused holes) gets for the first time to a new labyrinth, he behaves as follows: it is stuck into all holes, remembering the incorrect courses and not repeating them. At last, it reaches the purpose (for example, a cheese piece). If to let out it in this labyrinth once again, it already unmistakably will pass all way from point A to point B. Conclusion? A mouse in a labyrinth - an example of self-training system. It was necessary to create or at least in details to describe an artificial mouse. The scientist also undertook this work with passion inherent in it.
As a result there was also a science the cybernetics allowing to create and operate artificial intelligence. Having written and having published at the age of 54 years the first fundamental work on cybernetics, Norbert continued the theoretical researches. In particular, in work “ Cybernetics and society “ he proved that many conceptual schemes defining behavior of live organisms at the solution of specific objectives are similar to the schemes characterizing management processes in difficult technical systems.
At the end of life Norbert Wiener, one behind another, published two works: novel “ Tempter “ and philosophical treatise “ Creator and Golem “. In these books he stated the fear that “ woken “ it force can bring not only benefit to mankind, but also conceals in itself huge danger if the artificial intelligence ceases to submit to the person and will leave from - under his control.
Shortly before death Norbert Wiener was awarded the highest award for the person of science in the USA - the Gold Medal of the Scientist. At the solemn meeting devoted to this event, the president of the country Lyndon Johnson said: “ Your contribution to science is surprisingly universal, your look always was absolutely original, you - the tremendous embodiment of symbiosis of the pure mathematician and applied scientist “. At these words Winer got a handkerchief and prochuvstvenno blew the nose.
Norbert Wiener died on March 18, 1964 in Stockholm...