Speleology. What is it interesting by?In Russia under the word “ speleology “ mistakenly not only the science, but also the sports tourism connected with an origin of caves is understood. Actually they should be distinguished: the speleology is, first of all, science, and sports tourism - the direction connected with visit of caves, belonging to tourism.
Sports speleology arose in Russia at the beginning of 60 - x. And at the beginning of 70 - x only in Moscow about ten official speleological collectives actively functioned.
What is speleological tourism? It is a kind of sports tourism which sense consists in travel on natural underground cavities, i.e. caves, and overcoming in them various obstacles - siphons, wells. The siphon is an underwater tunnel of the natural or artificial origin entirely filled with water. Constitutes considerable danger to swimmers since. can be considerable length, not have suitable section for passing. The longest siphon in the territory of the CIS - 935 m (a cave Ordinskaya). The most extended siphon in the world - an underwater cave of Construction Department of Bel Ha, with a general extent of 182 km the studied courses.
Special requirements are imposed to ethics of speleoturist, their behavior in caves, to the relation to the nature underground. It is connected with extreme fragility of a cave - its ecosystems, different wall educations, mineralogical and ice crystals. For example, the broken-off stalactite is restored only through tens and even hundreds of years.
are open and investigated Presently by cave explorers caves in Altai, in the Arkhangelsk Region, in Voronezh, in Moscow, in Novosibirsk, St.-Petersburg, in the Tula Region, Khabarovsk and many areas of our Homeland.
In modern conditions, on a wave of the general interest in new extreme types of tourism, there is actual a question about available to bulk of people - spelunking. For this purpose it is necessary that areas of residence had the necessary speleoresursa - caves, caves, stone quarries which would be in close proximity to the cities of the central part of Russia. In the Tula and Moscow regions such underground objects are. In Moscow area it is the whole network of the stone quarries located on river banks of Pakhra. In Tula region it is the Guryev (Byakovskiye) stone quarries, the entrance to which is on the river bank the Sturgeon. These caves are very popular among fans of new impressions. They are constantly visited by tens of tourists. But also search of new unknown or the forgotten underground objects does not weaken.