What is the heuristic training? Innovative techniques of trainingdistinguish From innovative techniques of training to heuristic training which prototype is the method of questions and Socrates`s reasonings , or, in other words, “ sokratovsky irony “ . It is known that the Ancient Greek philosopher led the pupils to true judgment through dialogue. It asked the general question in the beginning, and having received the answer, again entered the specifying question and so before obtaining the final answer.
Farm A. V.:
Heuristic training sets as the purpose designing by the pupil of own sense, the purposes and content of education, and also process of its organization, diagnostics and understanding. Personal experience of the pupil becomes a component of its education, and the content of training is created in the course of activity.
Heuristic activity is connected sometimes with creative activity . However the first concept is wider and has a number of differences:
1. Heuristic activity includes creative processes on creation of educational production.
2. One of components of heuristic activity are informative processes which are necessary for creativity maintenance.
3. In heuristic activity organizational, methodological, psychological and other processes provide creative and cognitive activity.
In heuristic training there is one main feature - studying of educational standards and personal creativity of the pupil are interchanged the position . In the beginning the pupil independently creates educational production, and later compares it with culturally - the historical achievements of mankind enshrined in educational standards. In this case both standards, and ways of independent creative activity of the pupil are acquired.
The main task in heuristic training is creative self-realization of the pupil . It is carried out as follows. The pupil receives material for designing, however it is not given ready knowledge of it. He creates an activity product (a hypothesis, the composition, a hand-made article), and then by means of the teacher compares it with historical analogs in this area. As a result the pupil reinterprets the result and there is its personal transformation (change in feelings, knowledge, abilities and experience). As a result of activity of the pupil also the common cultural increment when the pupil is involved in culturally - historical processes can act.
The heuristic educational situation is a key element of training. This situation intensifies ignorance, its purpose - the birth pupils of personal idea, a problem, hypothesis, the scheme, text etc. The educational result in heuristic training is unpredictable, each pupil can receive absolutely different results.
Heuristic training is based on the basis of open tasks . Practically any element of the studied subject can be expressed in the form of an open task. For example, compose a proverb, formulate the grammatical rule, think up society of the future, make the collection of the lessons, define possible ways of use of any subject.
Not extent of assimilation of ready knowledge, but a creative deviation from them is subject to control in heuristic training. Thus, development of personal qualities of the pupil, his creative achievements in the studied objects, and also level of assimilation and an advancing of educational standards are subject to check and an assessment.
On materials: Farm A. V
. Heuristic training: theory, methodology, practice. Scientific publication. - M.: International pedagogical academy, 1998. - 266 pages
Farm A. V. Didakticheskaya heuristics. Theory and technology of creative training. - M.: Prod. - in MSU, 2003. - 416 with.