Syndrome of sudden children`s death. As everything happens.....In medical literature can be met several versions of names of the death of the baby which occurred absolutely suddenly in a dream - without the previous diseases, severe injuries and in general without the visible reasons: a syndrome of sudden death of babies, a syndrome of sudden death at children, the syndrome of sudden children`s death (SSCD). Terms similar among themselves in principle mean all these same - sudden death of the child of the first year of life which neither detailed studying of medical history of the kid, nor results of pathoanatomical research help to explain. Most often SVDS occurs in a dream therefore it is called still “ death in a cradle “.
Among the reasons of infantile mortality in our country, as well as in the USA, perinatal states and congenital anomalies prevail. Many children aged about one year die of diseases of respiratory organs, infectious diseases, accidents and poisonings. The syndrome of sudden death of babies did not find still due reflection in data of the Russian medical statistics because until recently the diagnosis of SVSM in practice of domestic pediatrics just did not exist. Installation, traditional for our country, on obligatory identification of a cause of death was an obstacle in a way of recognition of the fact of existence of a syndrome. As a rule, when the child of the first year of life suddenly died, and clinical displays of any disease were absent, the cause of death was all the same specified. In many cases the diagnosis " was made; sharp respiratory infection “ or “ catarrhal trakheobronkhit “ however often they were not an immediate cause of death, and were a certain additional factor which was definitely imposed on more serious factor. What can serve as the reason of sudden death of the child?
Despite efforts of doctors of the whole world, are not revealed until the end of the reason, causing so sudden death of the child today yet. Therefore we can speak only about hypotheses.
It is necessary to tell that for several decades scientists offered the most different explanations for these tragic cases. For example, possible causes of death sometimes considered an overheat, mechanical suffocation as the emetic masses or a pillow, immunity to cow`s milk, spasms at rickets, abnormal development of tissue of lungs, increase in a thymus.
Some authors assumed that the sudden death of the baby could be caused by a psychoemotional stress. So, fear of falling from height, lack of support, pain, sharp and unfamiliar sounds, sudden occurrence of silence, an unusual surrounding situation can cause sensation of fear in the child aged about one year. The fixed behavioural answer to external danger can become, according to authors of this hypothesis, “ fear paralysis “ which is characterized by immediate paralysis of motive and respiratory muscles that in turn can lead to sharp respiratory standstill.
The great value among the reasons capable to cause sudden death of the baby, was given to infectious diseases, especially pneumonia. Researches showed that in 30 percent of cases the died children had upper respiratory tract infections, otitis, bronchitis, diarrhea, vomiting shortly before death.
All these theories, except recognition of a SARS essential risk factor of development of a syndrome, lost the relevance now. However many of them formed the basis for development of standards of hygiene and care of babies who are very important for prevention of development of a syndrome.
The respiratory infection, by recognition of many authors, can really serve as additional risk factor as the infection increases the frequency and duration of the periods of a delay of breath at the child aged about one year, changes a condition of many systems of a children`s organism. A basis of SVSM is cardiac arrest and breath therefore the reasons of a razvitiyataky state, zhizneugrozhayushchy for the kid, and should be looked for, according to scientists, in violations of functions of breath and a warm rhythm.
The mechanism of breath of babies has several features, in particular only at children of the first year of life it is noted apnoe - a breath delay in a dream. As a rule, short pauses in breath are observed also at absolutely healthy children, but their duration should not exceed 20 seconds. Experts connect emergence apnoe in a dream at children of the first year of life with immaturity of regulation of respiratory function from the central nervous system. For the first time about connection of sudden death of babies with violation of function of breath at them it was suggested in 1972. In particular, researches confirmed that at the dead as a result of SVSM of children episodes apnoe were more often noted. Supervision of the last years only approved this hypothesis.