Rus Articles Journal

Who such untouchable ? Exclusive system of India

We live in the 21st century and we think that many secrets of science and equipment are already opened, many social problems, etc. are resolved. Despite all these achievements, there are still places where about one today social society are divided into various layers - castes.

What is system of castes? Castes (from the Portuguese casta - a sort, generation and an origin) or Varna (the translation from Sanskrit - color), the term applied first of all to the main division of Hindu society on the Indian subcontinent. According to Hindu belief there are four the main Varna (caste) - Brahmen (officials), Kshatriya (soldiers), Vayshyi (dealers) and Shudra (peasants, workers, servants).

From the earliest works of Sanskrit literature it is known that the people speaking on Aryan adverbs during initial settling of India (approximately from 1500 to 1200 BC) already were divided into four main estates later named Varnami. Modern castes are divided into a big set a podcast - dzhat.

Hindus believe in transformation and consider that the one who follows rules of the caste in future life will climb the birth in higher caste, the same who violates these rules will lose the social status.

Brahmen - the highest layer of this system. Brahmen serve as spiritual mentors, work as accountants and accountants, officials, teachers, seize lands. They do not need to go behind a plow or to carry out the certain types of works connected with manual skills; women from their environment can serve in the house, and land owners to process plots, but only not to plow.

Members of each brahmanical caste get married only in the circle though the marriage on the bride from the family belonging to similar a podcast from the neighboring district is possible.

In the choice of food the brahman observes a set of bans. He has no right to use food, prepared out of its caste, but from hands of brahmen members of all other castes can eat food. Some podcasts of brahmen can use meat.

to Kshatriya`s

is cost for brahmen in the ritual relation at once and their task, generally to conduct battles, to protect the homeland. Today occupations of kshatriya are work as managing directors in estates and service at various administrative positions and in troops. The majority of kshatriya use meat and though they allow marriage with the girl from lower podcasts, but the woman cannot marry the man podcasts below her own at all.

of Vayshyi
Vayshyi - layers which are engaged in trade. Vaysh follow the rules concerning food more strictly and even more carefully try to avoid ritual defilement. As traditional occupation vayshyev serve trade and banking, they seek to steer clear of physical work, but sometimes join in management of farms of landowners and rural businessmen, directly without participating in processing of the earth.

Pure shudra - a country caste. They, thanks to the number and possession of considerable part of local land grounds, play an important role in the solution of social and political affairs of some areas. Shudra eat meat, the marriage of widows and the divorced women is authorized. The lowest shudra are numerous podcasts which profession has especially specialized character. These are castes of potters, smiths, carpenters, joiners, weavers, maslodel, vinokur, bricklayers, barbers, musicians, skinners, butchers, dustmen and many others.

Untouchable - occupied with the dirtiest works, in many respects they are outside Hindu society. They do the cleaning of dead animals from streets and fields, toilets, a dressing, etc.

to Members of these castes is forbidden to visit houses pure castes and to take water from their wells, to them even the shadow of other castes is forbidden to come. The majority of Hindu temples were closed for untouchable until recently, there was even a ban to approach people from higher castes closer than the determined number of steps.

Character of exclusive barriers such is that is considered as if they continue to profane members pure castes even if they left the exclusive occupation long ago and are engaged in ritually neutral activity, for example agriculture. Though in other social conditions and situations, for example, being in the industrial city or in the train, untouchable can have physical contact with members of higher castes and not profane them, in the native village untouchability of a neottorzhim from it, than he was engaged.

Throughout all Indian history the exclusive structure showed surprising stability before changes. Neither the Buddhism, nor the Muslim invasion which ended with formation of the empire of Moguls establishment of the British domination shook fundamental bases of the exclusive organization of society.