How on our table potato got?Probably, any garden plant did not acquire so many legends, rumors and adventures as potatoes. Now it is often called the second bread. And it opened of itself(himself) the way on our continent, and, especially, in Russia, with great difficulty.
Today it is even impossible to present our diet without potato. You remember how the cook Tosya argued with woodcutters in the movie “ Girls “ about that how many dishes it is possible to prepare from potato? And so, by different calculations, with potato and from potato it is possible will prepare not less than 999 dishes! Besides that potato is very nutritious, it also is very useful. In tubers there are a lot of vitamins - C, B1, B2, B6, PP, K. 17,5% of starch, 0,5% of sugars, 1 - 2% of proteins and about 1% of mineral salts are its part.
Tubers can be white, pink, yellow, red and even blue color. About 200 wild and cultural types are contained by this plant. On light in potatoes toxic agents solanin and chakonin which can lead to poisoning are formed. Therefore the layer is better not to eat or cut off the become green tubers more thickly, deleting the become green part. Besides that potatoes an excellent product for food, it is also excellent technical raw materials. From its tubers receive starch, treacle and alcohol. It is used at textile, match factories and at rubber plants.
In the homeland - in Peru - potatoes are known still from time immemorial. Scientists established that already more than 14 thousand years Indians of South America use this plant, calling it “ father “. The remains of plants and " are found in ancient burials of Indians; chunyo “ - these are potatoes prepared for the future in the special way. “ Chunyo “ it is prepared so - crude potatoes within five weeks in a certain order are exposed to cold, to the sun. After that there are less than 20% of its initial weight. Here and the product, under the name " turns out; chunyo “. It can be stored within several years, but it is obligatory in the fresh air. From it Peruvians cook very spicy soup - “ karapulcha “.
When Spaniards in 1531 set foot on land of Peru, struck them that all local population eats strange fruits from - under lands. In several years Europeans for the first time learned about potatoes. It occurred after a publication of the book of the Spanish seaman who visited Peru. He wrote: “ The Father - a special type of peanuts; being welded, they become soft as a baked chestnut; they are covered with a peel, is not thicker than a " truffle peel;. So it expressed the impression about a plant, new to Europe. Spaniards tried to eat crude this, exotic for them, vegetable, salads from its leaves tried to prepare. And British tried to cook from it soup according to the recipe of the Peruvian Indians. But everything was not that. Therefore did not recognize potatoes.
Nevertheless from Spain it gets to other countries of Europe. In Italy for similarity to truffles it is called “ tartufol “ - probably from here the name " also appeared; " potatoes;. France called it “ earth " apple; also used its flowers for jewelry. This fashion appeared after the queen Marie Antoinette appeared on a ball, having decorated a dress with flowers of potatoes. Now it is strange to represent how it is possible to be decorated with flowers a garden plant. But, moreover, in Germany not only appearance, but also potatoes aroma of flowers was appreciated. And by the end of the 16th century the Polish druggists recognized in it a herb and each of them grew up potatoes on the kitchen garden.
The Parisian druggist Antoine Parmantie in the 18th century understood the true value of this plant. He said that “ among an uncountable set of plants which cover a land surface and a surface of the water of the globe, are not present, perhaps, any which with the big right would deserve attention of kind citizens, than " potatoes;. He dreamed to settle over all country a new plant which will give to the people food, and very much “ advanced “ it in masses.
Once Parmantie suggested the king to try potatoes dish. The dish so was pleasant to the king that he disposed to give every day it to a table. And still the druggist resorted to such cunning: in the afternoon about potatoes planted on its site the guards were exposed, and were not at its night. Locals thought that something valuable is protected and, without missing an opportunity, stole bushes with tubers. Tried boiled tubers and planted potatoes at themselves. And the somewhat eccentric druggist rejoiced that he is robed. Thus, potatoes began to be planted across all France. And held this druggist kind in remembrance still. Every year as a token of gratitude potatoes bushes, now all recognized blossom on its grave.
This vegetable got to Russia in 1700 when Peter I sent a bag from Holland. Though there is an opinion that potatoes got to our country earlier. Anyway the Russian peasants for some reason fiercely began to hate potatoes. Perhaps, as well as all new that came from Europe, thanks to Peter I during this period? And can because nobody knew how to use it and often there were poisonings? This is today each school student knows that berries which appear after blossoming are it is impossible as they are very poisonous.
In the people potatoes were called “ devil`s " apple; went for penal servitude, but refused to part this vegetable because rumors went, as you will be left without bread, and you will defile the earth. As usual all new and good, potatoes hardly made the way in life on country kitchen gardens. Speak, such funny case was one of the reasons of distribution of potatoes. Some Russian barin, wishing to surprise the guests with something unusual, disposed to serve those fried green berries to a table. Guests spoke about opposite taste of this entertainment and the owner, having become angry, ordered to burn all pulled-out bushes. And later in ashes from a fire found tasty baked tubers. So gradually, a trial and error method, the new culture gained popularity and began to force out turnip and a swede slowly.
Here such long way was gone by potatoes before getting on our table.