What they are horses of Samurais? Part 2Soldiers trained also in riding during traditional catching of wild horses which was carried out in the middle of the fifth month every year in day of a monkey (12 - y day on cyclic counting), with the assistance of above-mentioned Shinto priests. These peculiar hunting were arranged in the Middle Ages on Kanto`s plain, and with their help stables were replenished new, in the future - fighting horses, and the best rider (or groups of riders) teams of the prince came to light at the same time.
By itself, it was also training in badzyuets for soldiers, and extremely intense and difficult, including and jumps on a cross-country terrain, and overcoming of obstacles (we will remember reliefs of the islands of Japan). Besides, the pursuit of wild horses was carried out in full equipment: in helmets, an armor, with fighting banners (set). Later this custom turned into a Shinto holiday too and received the name “ namaon “ - field maneuvers of a cavalry.
Purpose of a holiday - to inspire youth and adults of a busa, to impart them bravery and courage, and it quite came true: watching spectacular and dangerous hunting, sons of Samurais were ready to jump for a horse and to join a gallop. The main part were actually jumps and various prosecutions, and also fight of two groups of riders for capture of a banner.
Naturally, the similar trainings as close as possible to fighting situations were not in vain. The samurai cavalry was perfectly trained formation able to be at war almost in any conditions and to skillfully use the weapon.
In fight, at rapprochement with the opponent, Samurais jumped on a zigzag trajectory, forcing down a sight to enemy archers. In near fight the spear or a sword were used. As a rule, the Samurai tried to put in compact groups of the enemy to split them. Sometimes fight broke into individual duels. In the 12th century. there was a custom of a nanora which was that the Samurai was presented to other Samurai before entering with it a duel. Battles during this period reminded huge tournaments. But in the 13th century this custom was a thing of the past and fights turned just into collisions of huge mass of a cavalry. Also it is necessary to remember that in the 13th century Japanese face the Mongolian conquerors who did not consider necessary to be presented to somebody and applied tactics of mass attack, seeking to crush number. Absence at Mongols of respect for the opponent became for Samurais the real shock.
Ideally trained and trained horse so felt the owner that participated in fight on an equal basis with it - jumped aside, was thrown up on racks, bit or rushed in attack. Also horses were specially trained to overcome water barriers which in Japan was much. Trained in technology of speeding up of the rivers and lakes in the ponds which were about platforms for riding in locks of feudal lords.
The complex of horse equipment was called to a bug and was borrowed from the continent, mainly, Chinese. It included a bridle, a saddle and later - a horse armor. The bridle was called to ayets - a busa, a bit of a kutsuv was its part, nashchechnik of a hanagav, nakhrapnik of a kangam - an it and reins to kuyets - a vadzura which were made of a silk or cotton cord and were quite often ornated. The bridle was also decorated with brushes. Silently to creep to the opponent, the bridle was wound with fabric, and the muzzle of a horse was thrust into a special bag. Besides a bridle, the iron muzzle kutikago was put on a muzzle of a horse.
Even at management of a horse the flexible rod of dregs which was used in the manner of a modern switch was necessary. Samurais did not use spurs.
The saddle was called a chicken and had high forward and back onions which settled down at right angle to a seat. The saddle was based upon a small pillow name and was located quite highly, it was produced from a tree and decorated with metal, under it put a potnik kitsuke. The saddle was quite often decorated with long tapes on which ends there were hand bells. The standard opinion says what to save on decoration of and the horse was considered at Samurais as a bad form. The statement is rather inconsistent as in some manuals recommendations not to dress up excessively meet and to prefer simple linen fabrics. But on engravings and pictures it is possible to see sometimes a harness so rich with jewelry that behind it hardly it is possible to make out a horse - the embroidered reins, saddleblankets, bibs … the Japanese stirrups of an abuma differed in
from the European analogs a little. Originally they had the closed sock and the extended footboard behind, later they were modernized - sidewalls of a sock were cleaned then the stirrup got the form which existed all Middle Ages up to the 19th century. Usually stirrups were made entirely of iron, but the copies having an iron framework with wooden inserts meet. Some stirrups had an opening in a footboard for discharge of water which got there when overcoming water barriers, and also the core protecting a leg from sliding sideways.
An armor for a horse of mind - yory appears only in the 17th centuries. It should be noted that this time of the beginning of government of the shoguns from a dynasty Tokugawa who finished association of Japan. The period of numerous feudal wars and civil strifes was a thing of the past therefore it is possible to assume that an armor had only ceremonial value. Many details were made of skin or a papya - Masha though iron was also applied. In most cases an armor was made of the small scales of skin silvered and sewed on fabric and consisted of a nakrupnik, the plates protecting a neck and sides and was often richly decorated: from a carving to suspension brackets and tapes.
The head of a horse it was put on special to a nagolovya of an umadzur , made in the form of the head of a horse, a deer or a dragon, often decorated with moustaches, horns, branchy inserts - that strengthened already rather strong impressions of the average infantryman when on it gallop the rider on an oskalenny horse flew.
... Here such they were, horses of Samurais. In short article you will not tell everything, but as our readers already understood, history of this Japanese estate is inconceivable without horses and riding. Still studying and reconstruction of the most beautiful samurai customs, suits, style of fight and style of driving - one of the favourite directions of historians of Asia.