What they are horses of Samurais? Part 1the Horse is not a radical inhabitant of Japan. It was delivered from the continent and was very much highly appreciated. The first certificates on use of a horse by the person on islands which we find in sources belong to era Kofun (the end of the III-VI centuries of our era) . From now on the horses brought from east Asia extended across all Japan.
In the Middle Ages they were mainly used as pack animals - bulls were the main draft force in agriculture of the country, and astride a horse there went only representatives of the upper class. Vsadnichesky art was one of the most highly appreciated qualities of the soldier - and only noble Samurais were able to afford to have a horse and were a part of a feudal cavalry.
The Japanese horses were undersized, shaggy and possessed very spiteful temper. But at the same time they were extremely hardy, had the high speed and dexterity that was extremely important in the conditions of a relief of Japan. Throughout centuries in Japan it was created several native breeds adapted for local conditions. All of them were rather under-sized (130 - 150 cm in withers), and this circumstance forced many governors to take measures for improvement of the existing livestock by a prilitiya of blood of output horses.
Since Edo`s era (1607-1867?) among the gifts presented to the shogun by the Dutch merchants constantly are mentioned “ Persian “ stallions who actually, on all evidence, were Arab or Turkmen. Import considerably increases during the period “ Meiji`s restorations “ (1868-1912) when the imperial government began to encourage wide use of horses in country farms. Special educational classes and courses for farmers whose purpose was to inspire in the population need to grow up larger horses who would be suitable also for the military purposes were organized. To provide performance of this task, from Europe and North America a large number of producers among which prevailed thoroughbred riding, Arab and English - the Arab stallions was imported. Besides, brought to Japan and heavy trucks, in particular Belgians and Bretons.
Feature of the treatment of a horse in the Middle Ages in Japan is interesting: got onto a horse not at the left, and on the right. during driving reins usually held with two hands, but in fight the Samurai clung an occasion for rings on a breast plate of an armor and operated a horse only of a shenkelyama and case biases. Similarly shot from a horse.
The equipment of archery from a horse is known under different names. For the first time this type of firing it is mentioned in “ Nikhong “ (“ Annals of Japan “ 720 g) where it was told about mind - a yuma . Later firing from a horse began to be called in historical sources “ yabusame “. The greatest blossoming yabusame was reached during the period by Kamakura when riding, by called to badzyuets , in a combination to archery were considered as obligatory types of arts for the highest ranks of a samuraystvo. Archery from a horse, as well as kyudo, was not only obligatory, but also one of favourite types of competitions of Samurais, and was carried out usually in their society when they united in teams for competitions on equestrian sport.
As a rule, large competitions were made on a racing track in the temple Tsuruga of an eye Hatimang which is in Kamakura (present prefecture Kanagava), or on the seashore, usually during Shinto holidays. The Shinto priest acted as the main manager and the judge at yabusame. The target or the soldier`s armor (during the period Kamakura) put vertically about an arena, and arrows, rushing on a horse around, shot at the purpose three times with an interval of ten seconds. The rider held onions perpendicular to the line of the movement, pulling it breakthrough over the head and lowering so that the arrow was at the level of eyes. Time for a sight to the ostavaloskrayena has not enough, firing went almost offhand.
Yabusame continues to exist and now, but already as purely entertaining show. By tradition, competitions in archery from a horse are held on September 15 - 16 in the territory of the city of Kamakura.
Along with yabusame in a row samurai military arts entered so-called to Ying - about - mono - exercise on prosecution on a horse of a dog. To Ying - about - mono as well as yabusame, developed ability quickly and neatly to shoot a bow at full tilt at the soldier, operating at the same time a horse that was important then for a busa at battle as a part of horse connections. To Ying - about - mono, unlike firing at a motionless target, pursued other aim: to get to the moving object. In an arena let out a dog of the medium-sized size, and the rider, supporting the movement by gallop or a quick lynx, had to get to a dog a training arrow with a wooden tip. Often the same name called archery on a fox during hunting.
The present was reached by only two schools of horse archery - Takeda and Ogasawara. Both schools consider the founder Minamoto but Yosimitsu, the famous soldier and the strategist.