How there was a ruble?As the ruble appeared? Whether there was it truly from a tree and therefore whether it is called “ wooden “... In a word, history of our money in this small article.
In Novgorod in the 13th century along with the name “ hryvnia “ the name " began to be used; ruble “. So began to call the Novgorod hryvnia which represented an ingot of silver of a palochkoobrazny form, 14 - 20 cm long, with one or several dents on “ to a back “ and weighing about 200 g. The first known mention of ruble belongs to the end of the 13th century.
Long time was considered that the word “ ruble “ comes from a verb to cut supposedly hryvnias of silver were split with our ancestors into two parts - rubles, and those were in turn cut for two parts - half-oozes. However now it is proved that hryvnias of silver and rubles had identical weight. Most likely, the ruble is obliged by the name to ancient technology on which silver was filled in in a form in two steps - on payment Novgorod ingots the seam on an edge is swept well up. Root “ rub “ according to experts, the edge, a border means. By the way, “ rub “ on Ukrainian, Belarusian and Polish - a hem, and on Serbo-Croatian - a seam, a border. Thus, term “ ruble “ most likely, it is necessary to understand as “ an ingot with a seam “.
The ruble was widely adopted in Russia. There is the Moscow ruble which form and weight copy Novgorod. Also the West Russian or Lithuanian rubles which had the same form, as Novgorod were widely adopted, but 10 - 17 cm were length and
weighing 100 - 105 g was necessary For production of rubles a lot of silver, and in Russia in those far times our ancestors had no mines. Therefore rubles flew from the stocks of silver coins which are saved up earlier - dirhems of the Arab states Sasanidov, Abbasidov, Samanidov, denariyev the Byzantine empire and coins of the city of Chersonese. And also from the lepeshkoobrazny German ingots of silver arriving through Novgorod. Which became for Ancient Russia the main supplier of silver as kept the stablest communications with Western Europe.
In the 15th century the ruble finally drove hryvnia out of circulation, having become, in fact, only (except for half-ooze) real payment unit without the monetary period in Russia.
Being change, on coins, the ruble was capable to satisfy small payments. Increase in scales of stamping of coins and their continuous damage shook stability of ruble. As a result of it from the middle of the 15th century the ruble stopped being an ingot and in the sphere of monetary circulation remained calculating concept.
In 1654 at the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich (1645 - 1676) real ruble silver coins - " were for the first time let out; efimk “ recoined from the West German thalers - full-fledged currency of Europe. On a coin the inscription " was for the first time placed; ruble “ on the face - a two-headed eagle, on reverse - the tsar on a horse. However at this time the ruble was a defective coin, it contained less silver, than 100 silver kopeks. Its actual cost equaled to 64 kopeks.
In 1828, in connection with discovery in the Urals of platinum, stamping of platinum coins of 3 rubles, weighing 2 zolotniks (a zolotnik = 4,266 grams), began with 41 shares of pure platinum. In 1829 and 1830 were consistently introduced into circulation platinum 6 - and 12 - the rublevik corresponding on diameter to a silver fifty-kopeck piece and ruble it is powerful - twice and four times heavier 3 - a rublevika. Release of these unusual coins is explained by the fact that in the 19th century platinum did not find yet technical application and therefore it was appreciated is rather low.
Minister of Finance of the government of Nicholas I (1796 - 1855), columns E. F. Kankrin in 1843 entered the bank notes which replaced bank notes. But by 1849 tickets and old bank notes were exchanged for bank notes of a new sample which depreciated soon. Therefore from the beginning of the Crimean war of 1853 - 1857 banks stopped an exchange of bank notes for gold and silver. In Russia there came the period wide bumazhno - monetary circulation.
In 1895 - 1897 the Minister of Finance S. Yu. Witte (1849 - 1915) carried out new monetary reform which purpose was an establishment in Russia of gold monometallism. In its basis - gold providing monetary system of the state. As envisioned by reformers for ensuring steady convertibility of national currency (Ruble) free exchange of bank notes which release was limited, on a gold coin at the rate of one paper ruble for one ruble in gold was established, and also the gold maintenance of an imperial is reduced. Also new manufacturing techniques of bank notes, unknown in the West were developed and introduced.
War with Japan of 1904 - 1905, the revolution of 1905 - 1907 and World War I which broke out in 1914 led to crash of gold monometallism. Paper money did not change on gold any more. At the beginning of World War I from the address gold, silver and copper coins disappeared. In 1915 scanty circulation rapped out the last release of silver ruble. In the country it was entered bumazhno - monetary circulation.
Mass releases of monetary (paper) substitutes which began to serve entirely the markets of the empire entailed inflation growth. In February, 1917 the Provisional government led by the Social Revolutionary Kerensky A. F. came to the power. Owing to the wrong policy of the state the public debt of Russia increased, war " was waged; to the bitter end “ the huge number of paper money was printed. Therefore inflation strongly increased.
In October, 1917 there was a socialist revolution which caused civil war of 1918 - 1920. The government of Bolsheviks which came to the power was also forced to go in March, 1919 for the strengthened production of new paper money.
In March, 1921 release of the silver coins equal on quality to the corresponding face values of imperial Russia began the Soviet Russia. But all these coins were not released till 1924 - the monetary stock was created.
In 1923 the first Soviet gold chervonets corresponding according to contents in them pure gold to pre-revolutionary 10 rubles were let out. The official rate of chervonets for January 1, 1923 made 175 rubles bank notes of a sample of 1923 or 17 thousand 500 rubles in bank notes of 1922. The Soviet chervonets got the nickname “ sower “ as for the face of a coin the image of the sower - on Ivan Dmitriyevich Shadr`s sculpture was selected (1887 - 1941). Today gold chervonets of 1923 and 1925 - the most rare Soviet coins. Their most part was used for calculations with other states.
Reform of 1961 entered new coins from medno - a nickel alloy of white color (monetary cupronickel) - 50 kopeks and 1 ruble. In May, 1965 in commemoration 20 - the anniversaries of a victory over fascism for the first time in the USSR the anniversary coin, of 1 ruble is let out. On a coin Evgeny Viktorovich Vuchetich`s sculpture " is represented; To the Soldier - the liberator “. In 1977 - 1980 in honor of the Olympic Games - 80, taking place in Moscow, the first coins from precious metals - gold, silver, platinum were rapped out. In 1988 for stamping of anniversary and commemorative coins in the USSR metal palladium of purity 999 was for the first time used.
In 1992 the Bank of Russia let out new rubles in coins and bank notes, having completely refused stamping of a change owing to what 1 ruble became the smallest coin. But from - for the increased inflation in 1993 the Russian government carries out new monetary reform as a result of which most 10 rubles become a small coin already. In 1995 the State bank of Russia refused stamping of ruble in coins, having expressed it only in bank notes. And 1000 rubles become the smallest note. But already in 1998, during denomination of ruble (change of face value of banknotes for preparation of stabilization of monetary circulation), in the course coins appeared again. Denomination of ruble reanimated not only monetary ruble, but also the kopek which long ago rested.
As if there called our ruble, and now in Russia it is stabler and favorable currency, than euro and dollars, and it is not so important why the dollar which once had weight gave the points to ruble, how many the fact that the national currency is that money which we receive and for which we can buy something.