The Chuvash national embroidery ofthe Embroidery is one of main types of the Chuvash folk ornamental art. The modern Chuvash embroidery, its twiddle, equipment, color scale are genetically connected with art culture of the Chuvash people in the past.
For the analysis of an ancient Chuvash embroidery at the disposal of the researcher there are samples relating to 19 and the beginning is 20 centuries old. Only the insignificant quantity of the ornamented objects which are stored in museum meetings is dated 18 century. However even these rather late samples indicate their old origin and early acquaintance the Chuvash with art of figuration of fabrics.
Processing of animal and vegetable fiber was known to the Chuvash woman long since. The ancient clothes were the homespun, richly decorated embroidery. So wrote P. S. Pallas in the second half of 18 century about clothes of the Chuvash women: “ The Attire at them the same as at Mordvins, from a thick canvas; it is embroidered to pestroy, a naipacha with blue, red and black wool and made small what greatly “.
The embroidery was executed on homespun, is more often a hempy canvas woolen threads and threads from vegetable fiber of the spinning. Besides and in 18, and 19 centuries the embroidery silks had considerable distribution. On markets and vagrant dealers then silk a raw which was spun was on sale, and then Chuvashes painted. Painted in old times only threads for embroidery, the canvas from which sewed clothes remained white. The Pestryadinny clothes local the Chuvash appear in the use much later, at the end of 18 century, and are widely adopted especially, since the middle of 19 century
For dyeing of a yarn various vegetable dyes were used. In the spring and summer of the woman dug out roots and collected bunches of the herbs necessary for dyeing. P. S. Pallas writes that when dyeing for obtaining yellow color Chuvashs used hare poppy (Adonis vernalis), a simple wormwood, with impurity of a genista (Genifta tinctoria), for green color - leaves of an alternate-leaved thistle (Carduus hete rophyllus). The giving red color, the madder (Rubia tinctorum) was the most widespread dye. After drying it was pounded in mortars or ground on millstones, then, water gravies, put in the hot furnace. The next day added waters and long boiled. For the fortress of paint put ashes. In broth of a madder painted wool to four times, drying after every time. Except a madder, used still a dushitsa (Origanim) and the young leaves of an apple-tree collected in the spring; flower heads of a marjoram and leaves of an apple-tree pounded, then added the scalded malt and added waters, in solution put still yeast. Pallas notes that the received vegetable paints gave good color and many did not fade after washing.
Skills in coloring of a yarn developed and improved further. With the advent of a polikhromny embroidery (the 19th beginning of 20 centuries) the bigger amount of dyes was required. The old Chuvash embroidery is extremely various. Its different types were applied at figuration of separate parts of clothes.
The main accessory of ancient Chuvash clothes was (a linen shirt), the breast, a hem, sleeves which back were richly ornamented. From a shirt embroidery, first of all a women`s shirt as it is the most colourful and ornated by an ornament, and it is necessary to begin the description of the Chuvash national embroidery.
The most archaic samples of the women`s ornamented shirts which remained in several copies in are dated the middle and the end of 18 century.