Postgraduate study in Russia and abroadIn postgraduate study of distinction between the countries and higher education institutions begin to be erased slowly, globalization affects. If not to pay attention to in general minor things, then it is possible to tell that the Russian postgraduate study and writing of the thesis not really strongly differs from foreign. Perhaps, the most considerable difference consists that the western graduate student should study much more (in usual, “ student`s “ sense) that is to go to courses and to take examinations.
Abroad the graduate student (however, as well as the master) always has “ the main “ and “ additional “ specialties (major subject/minor subject). The main specialty defines the general activity - physics, mathematics, computer science, biology. The additional specialty can be any and indicates what courses of people it takes for the general development. The programmer can quite take linguistics, history, biology as minor subject. It is possible and not to deviate from the main subject and to take physics or economy.
Within the European postgraduate study (on the example of Finland) should pass on average seven semestrial courses on each specialty (that is totally about 14 courses; disclaimer: so was where I studied). For comparison: Russia hold unless weekly seminars on philosophy and on a foreign language. Still hand over specialty (but for it the separate course is usually not provided) and some unclear examinations it seems “ " Equipment bases; or “ science history “. But, of course, not to compare total amounts of loading.
As in general occurs training in postgraduate study abroad? It is supposed that degree of PhD can be received approximately in four years (but five - six years not a problem too; problem always not in duration as in that, and in an opportunity to get a grant for the extending training period). It is morally simpler to most of graduate students to begin with passing of courses. That is the first year they are practically not engaged in anything, except hearing of lectures. Gathered all courses which only could, and you try to earn the missing credits.
By the way, here can arise unexpected complexity: if you studied on the master program at small university, it will be not so simple to find enough new courses for receiving “ credits “. Many have such problem: almost all courses “ high “ level listened, in the course of training on the master. Besides, if behind shoulders there is already one higher education (it is desirable on adjacent, but other specialty), it is possible to try to contrive and give it for minor subject. At a certain share of luck it can work.
Begins " further; research activity “. Its peripetias - a subject for separate and long conversation, but I will try to be limited to the main points.
Graduate students - “ working horses “ sciences. It is necessary to understand that professor takes the graduate student to himself in the help, and formally has over him quite big power. Life of two - three different graduate students can differ considerably from each other depending on “ horoshest “ head. In principle, the head can hold the graduate student “ in a black body “ to load it work as much as necessary and to demand results. I do not say
Ya that it is bad, but there is a thin side. Some heads tend to pass for a side of reasonable. The choice of the head is very important, and here it is quite good to inquire among the senior companions (one more argument in advantage “ at first - magistracies “: while you study, there is time to estimate a situation).
Should be told also about “ difficulties of reorientation “. Somewhere around postgraduate study (can, a little later) there is a line behind which it becomes difficult to give itself in new quality. Let`s assume, you in Russia were engaged in a subject XX. Abroad you are agreed to be taken in postgraduate study on a related topic of Y. The local head understands that you are qualified for Y since a related topic, and the subject X just does not interest him, and he does not wish to be engaged in XX. Probability to find the postgraduate study ideally corresponding to XX, quite difficult, just accept it as the fact.
And so, agreeing to Y, you automatically become after a while the specialist in Y, and you are already perceived in this quality. It will be very difficult to return back to XX. It is possible to recommend not to come off XX completely and to anyway concern XX in the postgraduate work (if related topics, it is usually possible).
research activity in postgraduate study - piece ambiguous. On the one hand, you as if begin scientific career, and it is good if start worthy. On the other hand, all understand what the purpose of PhD of the thesis is the proof of ability to conduct researches, but not work of the Nobel laureate. The relation to the thesis in general pragmatic, about algorithm “ passings “ the graduate student`s quest even write books.
the Research project of the graduate student is urged to confirm ability to carry out “ competent “ researches in due form. Undertakes certain (not really complex challenge), it is analyzed by scientific methods, the solution is proposed, the problem is solved, the received results are estimated, conclusions and offers are drawn. Therefore the main criterion of the choice of a task are it “ scientific character “ and of course its reshayemost within two - three years. It is necessary to tell that such relation remains even at some serious uchny heads.
On the one hand, not really - that is similar to fundamental science, and quite reasonable scientific problems are solved with another - are solved well, and the colleague deservedly takes the place at university.
In the course of researches intermediate results are periodically published, and these publications are a basis of dissertation work. Journal publications are considered as more solid, conference - less solid. The set of three points for publications is sufficient for an exit to protection (1 point there is journal article, 0. 5 - conference). At the same time existence at least of one journal publication is extremely welcomed.
In some western countries (in Finland, in particular) it is allowed not to write the thesis at all. It is enough to group articles in the uniform book and to write vast introduction (around 50 - 70 pages is though much, but less full thesis is obvious. It is appreciated such “ filing “ in general it is not so high, but degree award the same.
Well and, finally, a couple of words about defense of a thesis. Formally process of protection is more detailed, than in Russia. For example, protection can last 3 - 4 hours in the course of which the opponent drives protected on all questions which arose during protection. But in general the simple rule works: if you were allowed before protection, most likely, you will pass it.
As was told me by one clever person when business reaches accounts department, distinctions between the countries are erased. The failed author of dissertation - blow to faculty and university in general. If the thesis is weak, the politically correct research supervisor will look for such reviewers and such opponent who will belong loyally and will not fill up. If it is strong - will invite serious people to lift prestige of faculty. If to fill up foreign authors of dissertation, eventually will begin to fill up yours, scientific it`s a small world.....
Ya I realize that all this policy looks, to put it mildly, not scientifically, but such is the world, and with it you will make nothing. Such is if you want articles from you or the thesis, provide a conclusion. And well executed thesis is absolutely another, here answer the conscience, but not an academic council.